Millions of species of living creatures live on the Earth, and they all have some kind of connection. Some species of animals are eaten by others and are themselves food for stronger representatives of the fauna. But there is another relationship - symbiosis, examples of which are found everywhere. In Greek, this term means "living together". Surprisingly, some plants are also prone to "cooperation" of this kind.
One of the types of symbiosis is mutualism, which means "reciprocity." In this form of cohabitation, both parties are vital to each other.
An example of coexistence is also parasitism, with one representative harming another, surviving in this way.
Let's start with ourselves - people. It would seem that bacteria are human enemies, but without some of their species, we can not normally live and exist. In our intestines live bifido- and lactobacilli, which by their number displace the pathogenic organisms that come from outside. And they eat at the expense of the contents of the digestive tract, that's how mutual cooperation turns out.
There are animals that have "been friends" for a long time. In Africa, for example, the birds of the voloklyi fly from the back to the back of large animals (buffaloes, giraffes, rhinoceroses), they find and eat mites and other insects sucking on giants, purifying them from parasites and receiving a lot of food for themselves.
In the marine world, there are also species that help each other out. For example, a bull-calf, having seen a large enemy, hides in a hole dug by a click-crawfish. But arthropods are only happy about this, because the escape of the fish serves as a signal that they too need to hide (the cancer itself does not see well). When the hippopotamus is in the water, it is purified from algae and parasites by the fish "black labo," not only the skin, but also the teeth and even the gums.
Sinegalsky avdotka (bird) was able to establish friendship with the crocodile! She nests the nest and lays eggs near the place with the alligator eggs. In case of danger, the bird summons the giant with his shout, and he immediately rushes to protect his masonry and the nest of the car.
There is also a plant symbiosis, examples of which are mushrooms with trees, as well as insects with flowering plants. Podisynoviki, podberezoviki receive from trees nutrients, giving in return minerals and water. And birds, feeding on the nectar of flowers, carry pollen on their beaks and thus help plants reproduce.
In the intestine of termites live flagellated protozoa that digest fiber in sugar. Termites do not have enzymes for this function, and without their partners they can die from hunger. A flagellate in the intestine live and reproduce in favorable conditions for themselves.
Examples of parasitism
But in nature there are organisms that live at the expense of others, in another way they can not. Eating and releasing toxins, the parasite gradually poisons the host's body. Some opportunists settle in someone for a while, and some live so constantly. Parasites gradually degrade, they are no longer able to digest food by themselves, see, hear, but they have hooks and suckers. In such species, the multiplication function (millions of individuals) is increased, this is due to the high mortality of offspring.
Worms are a large class of parasites. They mostly live in the intestines of humans or animals. Also, these creatures are capable of affecting the liver, bladder, brain and muscles. Nutrients, vitamins and trace elements that come with food are absorbed by worms, while the human body is "robbed", exhausted and constantly suffering from toxins.
Parasites can live outside, for example, fleas and ticks. They are also considered impermanent pests, ie, they are on the host for a short time, feeding on blood through the skin.
An amazing form of existence - a symbiosis, examples of it can be seen by carefully looking at the surrounding world. And you can start with yourself.