Among vegetable crops, pepper is very popular. These are tender annual or perennial plants that belong to the Nightshade family. Branched pepper bushes have an erect stalk. The large leaves are oval in shape. Plants generally reach a height of up to 60 cm. Single flowers of this vegetable culture have the shape of a star. Color colors for different varieties is different. They can be white, purple or gray. The value of this plant is its fruits - pods. They differ in color and taste. Vegetable culture includes two groups - it's sweet and hot peppers. Sorts are grouped according to distinctive characteristic features and features.
The main types of hot pepper
The history of growing an amazing vegetable culture begins in the past. It is believed that the birthplace of pepper is Central and South America. Currently, it is quite popular and grown around the world.
- Capsicum annuum.
- Capsicum chinense.
- Capsicum baccatum.
- Capsicum frutescens.
- Capsicum pubescense.
In addition, twenty-six wild species are known.
The sharpest peppers
Varieties belonging to the species Capsicum chinense are considered the most burning. The semantic meaning of this species is the plant "from China". However, this definition is considered unsuccessful. Peppers of this species do not have anything to do with China. The native land of plants is the territory located in the basin of the Amazon River. All varieties of this species are thermophilic and hygrophilous. They have the highest capsaicin scores on the Scoville scale. This group is quite numerous. Distinctive features of plants are strongly pronounced burning taste and characteristic fruity aroma. These qualities have determined its popularity among cooks. To prepare all kinds of sauces use such hot peppers. Varieties of this species can be divided into several groups.
Burning peppers were found in Mexico. The sharpness of the varieties of this group varies from one hundred thousand to one million units on the Scoville scale. They are considered record champions for the burning qualities among chili peppers. In 2000, the Habanero variety Red Savina was added to the Guinness Book of Records. Features of taste qualities of this group of plants is citrus flavor. Over the years, as a result of selection work, various varieties have been obtained, which are successfully grown in many countries of the world. When nursing care should be taken into account that the plants are thermophilous and light-loving. Cultivars of this family seedlings. Terms of sowing seeds for obtaining planting material are in February-March. Seedlings are planted in open ground in well-lit areas with sufficient soil fertility. When nursing requires regular watering and fertilization.
Variety Chabanero Chocolate (Congo Black)
A powerful, strongly branched plant has large oval leaves and reaches a height of 120 cm.
The period of reaching the technical maturity is 100 days. Ripe fruit is rather fleshy. They have a special fruity aroma and quite high sharpness. It is 425 thousand units on the Scoville scale.
Variety Habanero Orange
Large branched shrubs reach a height of 90 centimeters. However, orange fruits are rather small and thin-walled. They grow to a length of up to 4 centimeters and a width of up to 3 cm.
Exquisite fragrant chili
The sharp peppers, whose varieties are united by the family of Trinidad, have a pleasant acuity and original appearance. All plants are surprised by the unusual shape of the pod. Chile of this family has a characteristic burning taste and a persistent fruity aroma. Cultivated in seedling. Peppers are very demanding of lighting. Some varieties of this series are suitable for growing under conditions of enclosed soil. In this case, artificial pollination of plants is used.
Trinidad Small Cherry
The variety is early maturing. Until the technical ripeness of the fruit will take from 70 to 80 days. Outwardly pretty beautiful plant. A powerful, strongly branched bush reaches a height of 50 to 90 cm. It is strewn with a multitude of bright orange or red fruits.
Noteworthy late-ripening varieties of this series Trinidad Moruga Scorpion Red, Trinidad Moruga Scorpion Yellow.
Family 7 Pot
This series includes mostly late-ripening varieties of chili. The period of obtaining the fruits of technical maturity is 120 days.
They are distinguished by a rather unusual form of the fetus, as well as a high content of capsaicin. These hot peppers are quite hot taste qualities. The varieties of this family are close relatives of the Trinidadian scorpions. The main similarity is the unusual shape of the fruit and a characteristic fruity aroma.
Like all plants of this species, chilies of this family are grown in seedlings. When planting in the open ground, attention should be paid to the fertility of the soil. For the normal development of the plant, heat, good illumination and regular moistening of the soil, timely application of fertilizers are necessary.
Pepper 7 Pot Primo
This variety was nicknamed the "fiery demon". The unusual shape of the fruit resembles a scorpion. Bright fruits have a red color.
Grade 7 Pot Gigantic (Giant)
Pepper will pleasantly surprise not only the burning taste, but also the large size of the fruit. Red pods in size are not inferior to the Bulgarian pepper. In open field conditions, shrubs reach a height of 15 to 30 cm. Acuity on the Scoville scale is from eight hundred thousand to one million units.
Varieties of the species Capsicum annuum
Annual plants are the semantic meaning of this species. But this definition is not entirely true. Chile of this species is the perennial plants of the Paslenov family. However, they are mainly grown as annual or biennial. Chile is a tropical plant. Perennial cultivation is possible in suitable growing conditions or in conditions of enclosed soil.
Peppers of vegetable type Capsicum annuum are branched shrubs reaching in height from 30 to 50 cm. The fruits of such chili are rather fleshy, have a pleasant taste. Unlike the previous species, they are less sharp and have a different shape and color. Varieties of this species are distinguished by early maturation. The period of obtaining fruits of technical ripeness varies from 70 to 80 days.
Cultivated mainly in seedlings. The main requirements are the fertility and looseness of the soil. For cultivation suitable well-lit, protected from drafts areas. During the period of growth and maturation of fruits, regular watering and fertilization are necessary. This is a fairly common, popular hot peppers. The species Capsicum annuum is represented by five domesticated groups, such as:
- Pepper cherry - Cerasiforme;
- Conus peppers - Conoides;
- Red cone peppers - Fasciculatum;
- Bell, or sweet peppers - Grossum;
- Chili, or cayenne pepper - Longum.
A large group of plants are sharp peppers. The varieties belong to such families as Jalapeno and Cayenne pepper.
Mexican chili jalapeno
Heat-loving vegetable peppers are grown as a perennial crop in Mexico and in the south of the USA. In countries with a cold climate, these plants are most often grown under conditions of enclosed soil. For this, greenhouses or greenhouses are suitable. Not bad feel the data of chili on the windows of city apartments. The fruits of the varieties of this family are elongated pods.
They have a green color, which, when ripe, changes to red or yellow. The acuity of the fruit is not very strong. The flowering period lasts from spring to the end of the summer period. This contributes to the conveyor ripening of the fruit. This characteristic feature makes plants quite attractive when grown at home. A beautiful blossom and numerous burning fruits will please pepper an acute room. Grades suitable for growing at home can be found in the family of Jalapeno.
A variety of Mexican pepper Jalapeno Yellow
An early-ripening beautiful plant has small yellow elongated fruit. They have a pleasant, slightly sour, spicy taste.
It is used fresh. This pepper is also used for making sauces and marinades.
Unlike the group of Jalapeno, it's quite hot peppers. The fruits of this family are characterized by a high content of capsaicin. Low-grown shrubs have elongated pods, reaching a length of 8 to 15 cm. They are painted in red or yellow. Varieties are distinguished by high yields. The best varieties of hot pepper will provide maturation for the season up to 40 fruits. Among them deserve attention such chili as Cayenne yellow candle, Little yellow cherry, Cayenne golden, Cayenne red.
Chile Capsicum baccatum
The homeland of these unusual peppers is the tropical forests of Brazil. These are "berry-shaped", quite powerful plants. They reach a height of up to 1.5 meters. A distinctive feature of this species is the unusual coloring of flowers, the corollas of which have yellow or brown spots. The taste of fruits of unusual shape can be weakly pointed or burning.
Peppers of the species Capsicum frutescens
Shrubby plants are the main meaning of the name of this group. It is less popular than the previous ones. This species is represented by well-known varieties of Tabasco and Malaga. Peppers grow compact bushes. The fruits are elongated and red. They are small in size. The length of the pod does not exceed 4 cm. The advantage of Tabasco is the succulence of the fruit, which has a mild acuity. On the Scoville scale, it varies in the range of 30 to 50 thousand units. Grades are suitable for growing in containers.
Capsicum Pubescens is a kind of chili that is not very popular. It is represented by the species Rokoto and Manzano.