Political advertising is the dissemination of certain information about political parties, associations, public and state organizations, public authorities and citizens taking part in political activities. To the public, ideas, programs, and attitudes are conveyed through various means. The spread of political information began from the moment the state appeared. At that moment it became necessary for the authorities to enter into communication (communication) with the population in order to get help from it. Thus, through information to the state it was convenient to influence the behavior of its citizens.
Political advertising, being a system of specific communications, is designed to change the behavior and consciousness of people in accordance with the goals pursued by the advertiser.
The structure of this specific information dissemination includes:
- Subject. This definition should be understood as political movements (associations, parties), aspirants for elected offices.
- An object. In this case, we mean the target audience (voters).
- The subject is the personality of the leaders of parties, movements, associations, electoral programs and so on.
- Goal. Political advertising can be conducted to form public opinion. The goal may be to come to power through the exercise of elective office.
- Tasks. In this definition, the specified goals are often used.
- Facilities. They include publications and broadcasts in the media, posters, clips, leaflets, TV debates, meetings with the target audience (voters). Inseparable forms of dissemination of political information were photographs, cartoons, cartoons. Radio programs are also quite popular. Souvenir products are very common as a form of reporting political information.
- Reverse and direct communication. The availability of these elements involves conducting public opinion polls, researching the relationship to the applicant and his agitation, and so on.
Being a communication structure from a psychological point of view, political advertising includes three main components. The first is the cognitive (cognitive) element. It gives the consumer new information. The second is considered an affective element. It forms the right emotional attitude. The third is the regulatory component, called to induce to certain actions.
The features of political advertising should be considered specifically, but given the presence in it of the psychological specifics of commercial advertising.
The similarity between the two concepts is in the presence of a "product" or proposal (idea, political leader or party) and the market, consumers are voters.
The difference is the place that political advertising occupies in a democratizing society in life. The dissemination of information is not limited only to certain samples (posters, stands, publications, etc.). From the point of view of psychological consideration, the purposeful various speeches of political aspirants, designed to influence the consciousness and, therefore, the choice of the voter, also apply to political advertising.
Despite the fact that there are many definitions, in each of them there is the concept of "communication". Thus, the dissemination of political information is carried out using the media and other means that provide communication with voters. At the same time, the aim is to influence people's attitudes towards political objects or subjects.
With the help of political advertising, an image of parties, people, programs, political views is created.