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Panic disorders. Severity scale of panic disorder. Methods of psychotherapy

To date, there are a huge number of techniques, hundreds of articles and books have been written to get rid of anxiety disorders, but patients continue to walk around all possible doctors, undergo many examinations and look for non-existent symptoms of a deadly disease. Fear thereby increases even more, and it becomes more difficult for a person to convince of the baselessness of his fears. Ideally, such a person should be immediately sent to a doctor-psychotherapist or neurologist, but, unfortunately, few therapists are sufficiently knowledgeable in this matter, and continue to conduct surveys and look for answers to the countless complaints of patients.

The essence of the disease

The diagnosis of panic disorder, as a rule, is put together with "vegetovascular dystonia", "vegetative crises" or "symptom-adrenaline crises". In general, panic attacks are a symptom of one of these diseases, but they are treated independently, vegetovascular dystonia is also diagnosed in most cases by a psychotherapist or neuropathologist. The disease can arise both in itself, and immediately turn into a panic disorder. Symptoms of the disease:

- Anxiety, restlessness, restlessness.

- High blood pressure.

- Pain in the thoracic region, palpitations, tachycardia.

- Feeling of suffocation, sensation of a coma in the chest.

- Dizziness, pre-stupor, strong weakness.

- Change in body temperature, chills, fever, sweating, "cold sweat".

- Abdominal pain, upset of the chair, nausea.

- Severe tremor.

- Unpleasant sensations in different parts of the body, tingling, numbness, sensation of cotton feet or hands.

Danger of disease

Fear. This is perhaps the most important symptom, which necessarily accompanies any panic condition. At the same time, a person loses some sense of reality and adequacy, at such moments, many people are triggered by a real animal instinct, they can either be dumbfounded and afraid to even move, or fuss and try to escape, and the whole fault is a strong fear of dying or going insane. Later, the patient at the subconscious level formed fear of not only experienced symptoms, but also the place in which they manifested themselves. So there are all sorts of phobias, fear of closed space (from there it is impossible to get out, in case of an attack), fear of heights (there one can lose consciousness and fall), fear of crowds or open space (a sense of shame if the attack occurs in public). This is the main danger of the disease, a person, experiencing another panic attack, acquires more and more phobias, closes, feels more sick and helpless. Doctors at the same time make a helpless gesture without finding any physical illness, and a person, feeling worse all the time, is convinced that he has a rare, incurable and undiagnosed ailment. Only with the competent approach of the therapist, the ability to calm and explain to the patient that nothing deadly dangerous has happened to him, and also to reason with him to address specifically to the therapist - the healing process is possible. In a fairly neglected state, it may be necessary to determine the patient for some time in the regional psychoneurological dispensary, in the main there is enough medical treatment, most often antidepressants in combination with tranquilizers, and one of the methods of therapy.

What's really going on?

In fact, a panic attack is an uncontrollable emotion that does not occur when the body needs to react to a real danger, but in situations that are completely uncharacteristic for it. Most often a person sets himself up for the development of an attack, as a result of which panic disorders develop. The physical symptoms in this condition is a normal reaction to the release of adrenaline.

The fact is that fear is the strongest instinct of self-preservation, therefore, at the moment of danger, absolutely all living beings receive a brain signal: "Beat or run." To get the necessary strength to fight or run into the blood and throw out a huge amount of adrenaline. Heart palpitations and breathing speed increase, blood pressure rises, and imaginary numbness of limbs, cotton feet - in fact, muscle strain, which prepared for a quick run from a frightening situation.

Why it happens

So, we figured out that uncontrolled panic disorders are not a fatal disease, but a normal body reaction to danger. The problem is that there is no danger. And seizures occur in completely calm, off-guard situations: when traveling on public transport, in a queue at a supermarket, in an elevator or in the process of an important meeting. The first time anxious panic disorder begins unexpectedly, but some common "predecessors" can still be traced. These are stresses, regular shortfalls, an unbalanced diet, bad habits - in a word, all this can be called worn-out organism. Sometimes the disease manifests itself after a serious shock: the death of loved ones, divorce or even a banal move to another country and the process of adaptation in it.

Development, causes, treatment

For a patient who regularly experiences panic disorder, the symptoms seem unbearably heavy and very frightening, in fact they carry absolutely no danger. Neither die, nor go insane, nor even fall into a swoon from them is impossible, but the person is frightened precisely by the incompatibility of the body's reaction to external stimuli, or rather, their absence.

Several factors influence the development of the disease. The main role is given to hereditary predisposition, this does not mean that the disease will certainly make itself felt, but the probability of this increases at times. In this case, it will be highly advisable to conduct regular preventive measures, as well as a more accurate attitude to one's lifestyle.

The second most common probability of experiencing panic disorders (this is about one in five patients) is changes in the central nervous system associated with child and adolescent psychological trauma. However, some internal conflicts, open or subconscious, can accompany the patient all his life. And since there is no other way out, children's insults, a sense of insecurity and childish fears can not be found, they turn into anxious states. To identify and cure child and youth trauma will help various methods of psychotherapy conducted by a specialist.

The last and, perhaps, the main reason for the development of panic attacks are anxious-hypochondriacal features of a person's character. In the same stressful circumstances, it is people with similar personal characteristics that acquire instability of the nervous system and panic disorders, as a consequence.

Features of anxious-suspicious nature

- Insecurity in yourself and your own strengths.

- Increased anxiety.

- Excessive attention to one's own feelings.

- Emotional instability.

- The need for increased attention from relatives.

Methods of treatment

The problem of identifying and stating the correct diagnosis is that a person does not seek the help of a necessary specialist himself. In general, people prefer to ascribe to themselves non-existent fatal diseases, but they deliberately avoid the therapist. But for the patient with such diseases as vegetative dystonia, as well as anxious and panic disorder, this doctor is conducting the treatment.

To date, there are many technologies that can both alleviate and completely relieve the patient of seizures, among them: cognitive behavioral therapy, psychological relaxation, neurolinguistic programming and many others. It is the doctor who will be able to determine the methods of psychotherapy or pharmacological appointments, which must be followed in the future. It should be noted that the therapy is selected strictly individually, taking into account the course of the disorder, the duration of the disease, the causes of its occurrence, concomitant diseases and characteristics of the patient's personality. Sometimes, in order to calm the nervous system of a person, it may be necessary to determine the regional psychoneurological dispensary, after discharge from which, also it is necessary to apply to the therapist to complete the treatment.

Panic attacks with the right choice of therapy are amenable to complete cure. The reliability of this was confirmed by the results of unique studies, carried out in 2010 by specialists of one of the scientific research institutes of psychiatry, psychotherapy and narcology. They consisted in revealing the most effective methods of treatment at those or other symptoms of panic attacks. The experiment involved 120 patients diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, divided into three groups of 40 each, to which various methods of psychotherapy were applied:

- The first group received only medications.

- The second group underwent medical treatment in combination with cognitive-behavioral therapy.

- The third group, in addition to psychotropic drugs, has undergone a course of integrative psychotherapy.

As the results of the study showed, the most effective results were obtained by a group taking medication in combination with one of the therapies (about 75% of patients from the second and third group). While treatment only with pharmacotherapy did not bring proper results. Less than half of the group could feel completely healthy and avoid relapse for a long period of time. Thus, specialists from the Research Institute of Psychiatry were able to prove the necessity of carrying out both medication and necessary therapy, which is chosen strictly individually for each patient.

Scale of panic attacks and anxiety attacks

For a more convenient determination of the severity of the disease, a special test was developed. This is a special scale of severity of panic disorder, designed to ensure that anyone with simple questions can determine the level of their panic disorder. In accordance with the test results, a person himself, without the help of specialists, will be able to determine the severity of his condition.

Is it possible to defeat the disease yourself?

Often, patients try to cope with a panic disorder on their own. Sometimes in this they are helped by relatives or even by not very competent doctors, giving advice: "Get yourself in the arms" or "Do not pay attention". Remember, this approach is completely wrong. The faster a patient turns to a specialist for help, the sooner he will achieve the normalization of the condition. The patient can use some techniques on his own, take medicinal herbs to calm the nervous system or fight, for example, with bad habits in order to help themselves, but the basic treatment must necessarily be done under the guidance of a professional. To date, the choice of specialists in the treatment of anxiety disorders is huge, it may be a nearby polyclinic or a mental health center, the main thing is to take the first step and begin treatment.

Help yourself with panic attacks

To help yourself during the attack is quite real, because it all starts with our thoughts. It happens like this: in a frightening situation, a person thinks: "Well, there are so many people here (a little people, a closed / open space ...) now I will feel bad, I will fall (I die, suffocate, run away, I will start hysterics ... ) And everyone will look at me. " Approximately so, a person disperses his negative thoughts to catastrophic proportions, and after a while he really begins to feel bad, without even thinking about what he himself provoked the attack. After all, from the very beginning, he is under the control of anxiety and fear, they must try to shift their attention from them.

- Take your time. Start counting people or cars passing by, remember the words of a children's song or a favorite verse. The main thing is to give yourself up to this occupation completely and concentrate on these thoughts.

- Breath. Having learned to control your breathing, you will be able to control the attack. In a relaxed state, human breathing is calm, deep and unhurried. In a state of stress, it is much faster, becomes superficial and fast. When approaching the attack, try to control it, make sure that it remains deep and measured, in this case you will be able to significantly reduce the symptoms of a panic attack, or even avoid it.

- Relaxation. Has the same effect as the regulation of breathing. If you stay in a relaxed state, the attack does not start. Learn to relax the muscles as needed, many special techniques you can find on the Internet.

These simple self-help methods will only help relieve the seizures, but not the disease. Therefore, when the first symptoms do not delay, always consult a specialist at the mental health center for qualified help. Only a properly selected course of treatment will help you get rid of the disease and again feel the joy of life. Anxiety-panic disorder is completely victorious.

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