Traveling around old Europe, in virtually any guidebook you will come across an offer to visit the Gothic temple of this particular city. Enjoying the beauties of several of these, you will notice not only the similarity of styles, which is logical, but also a lot of common details of the performance.
With the use of this style everywhere began to build structures from the end of the XII century and continued almost until the beginning of the XVI. Thus, for almost four centuries, builders and architects honed the skill of creation.
It was the Gothic temple that was the place of practical application of all mathematical and geometric knowledge of previous generations.
Given the imperfection of technology, construction has generally been delayed for many decades, and sometimes even centuries. The society of that era could not afford such delays in the development of religious life. Therefore, divine services began already in the first years of the beginning of construction, as soon as the altar part and places for the choir were erected.
Surprisingly, the original term "Gothic" originated as abusive, and he described the relationship to everything barbarous and unusual. However, over time it was transformed and began to be used to determine the religious religious style.
The following types of this architecture stand out: early, mature and late Gothic. Some sources also note neo-Gothic as the successor of Gothic classical.
What are the main elements of Gothic architecture? First of all, these are ribs and arkbutans, as well as poles supporting pointed arches.
Nerviura is a characteristic lancet arch, and arkbutans are open half-arches.
The outer walls were decorated with elaborate ornaments and sculptures. And the light followed through the large windows, which were encrusted with amazing stained glass windows.
Nerviura in architecture is designed to facilitate the arch and widen the window openings. In the future, the same principle began to apply in aircraft construction.
Subtext of Gothic architecture
The abundance of shining gold and the spiers soaring up to the skies declared the individual's aspiration to the sky, and served as a reminder of the religious orientation of the buildings. All elements of the architecture were symbolic, even sacred.
The Gothic temple itself symbolized the universe. And such a decorative element as a gothic rose is the wheel of Fortune, which expresses the cycle of time.
The light that penetrates through the stained-glass windows carries divine providence. Litsserey stained glass, the mortal breaks away from the corporeal, material world and finds itself in the spiritual.
Nerviura is the main means by which the main idea of Gothic architecture was expressed about the aspiration of the temple (the Universe) skyward.
Nerviura in modern architecture
Nerviura are bearing arcs that are made in the form of a semicircle so as to relieve the load exerted on the vault and walls. In its original form it can be found only in ancient and gothic buildings, in which they were erected exclusively from specially cut obliquely angled bricks.
But do not assume that the rib is already gone! Perhaps, the term itself has somewhat disappeared. Sometimes the definition of "roofing subsystem" is used instead.
In modern architecture it is most often made of bricks in the form of a triple arch. Nerviura can be concrete, ennobled with facing brick. Nervous vault is also called fan.
By the way, at the moment glazing of any atrium does not do without the device of a rib, which is often made of thin metal.
The ventral arch is also called the fan arch, which is caused by a characteristic appearance. That is why today the rib is not only a functional component. It is often used for decorative purposes.
Arkbutans in architecture
The use of arkbutans allows a very thorough reduction of the size of internal supports, increase window openings, as well as spans of arches.
Although historically they are associated exclusively with Gothic architecture, they were used much earlier, even in Byzantine and Romanesque buildings.
Surprisingly, arkbutans were used even in the old Russian designs, for example, during the construction of the famous Kiev Lavra.
Today the use of arkbutans in modern architecture is more an exception than a rule. However, they are still used as decorative elements or as load-bearing structures that reduce the load on internal supports.
Gothic in the modern world
Today Gothic is often found in the decoration of interiors. Since Gothic style requires a lot of space, most often it is used in the decoration of country houses.
Arched windows are used to create a larger room. The original mosaic looks more profitable than banal window panes. To do this, you can use and ready-made stained glass, imitating the style of the Middle Ages, or to order the collection of stained glass by hand.