The eye is a special sensory organ that helps practically every person to navigate in space, to know the world. It is he who can give the most complete information about what surrounds us. That is why various visual impairments bring not only discomfort, but also can disorientate a person and deprive him of some certainty.
Myopia and hyperopia are frequent visual impairments.
Features of myopia
Myopia (what is it, you can learn from this article), or, in other words, myopia - a visual impairment, in which a person can see objects fairly well at close range, and those that are away, he sees badly. In this case, the image focus falls not on the retina itself (which occurs with normal vision), but in front of it. This means that the rays are refracted more than necessary.
This disease occurs in every third person on the planet.
The main symptoms of the disorder
Myopia (which is described above) is characterized by specific visual impairments. In addition to the fact that a person ceases to see objects well away from himself, short-sightedness is characterized by the following symptoms:
- Contours of objects are blurred;
- The world that surrounds the patient merges into one;
- Vision near does not suffer at all.
Depending on what stage of myopia is in a person, the quality of the image of distant objects can differ from the slight fuzziness of the contours to full blurring, in some cases even a few meters from oneself.
In the case when a person with myopia is combined with astigmatism, the accompanying symptoms can be:
- Double vision in the eyes;
- Distortion of outlines of objects;
- Straight lines can be perceived as curved.
Degrees of myopia
Myopia in children and adults can be of different degrees:
- A weak degree of impairment (less than 3 diopters) indicates the length of the eye is about 1 mm larger than the norm, while the outlines of the subjects are slightly blurred.
- The average degree (less than 6 diopters) is characteristic of the eyes, which are much longer than normal. As a rule, in such people the membranes and vessels of the eye are strongly stretched, which leads to retinal dystrophy. Good vision is maintained at a distance of 20-30 cm.
- A high degree (more than 6 diopters) is the most severe stage of myopia development . The eye changes with such disturbances, the retina is very thin. This also applies to the choroid. The patient can distinguish between the fingers at arm's length, but reads only in the immediate vicinity of the eyes, no more than 10 cm.
The more serious the degree of disturbance, the more thin and elongated the membranes of the eye.
Risk factors that lead to disruption
The main reasons why myopia can develop in children and adults are:
- Genetic predisposition;
- Weakening of scleral tissues;
- Excessive eye strain (reading in poor lighting, in transport, a lot of time spent in front of a TV or computer);
- Mechanical trauma (during childbirth or brain damage);
- The lack of certain trace elements, the action of which is directed to the synthesis of sclera (in particular, zinc, copper and chromium are required for this).
Methods of struggle
Myopia (which is described above) is a disease that can be treated very well and corrected. There are several methods that help to get rid of the manifestations of the disease:
- Contact correction. This method of treatment involves the use of glasses or contact lenses, depending on the severity of the disorder. Glasses can be used as a permanent corrector, lenses are also recommended to be worn occasionally.
- Drug treatment. In this case, medications are used that can normalize the nutrition of the eye tissues. However, it is worthwhile to understand that vitamins, antioxidants, various stimulants of regeneration can not completely eliminate myopia. They will only prevent possible complications and will support the muscles of the eye in a tone.
- Hardware treatment. This method includes various techniques aimed at improving the supply of the retina of the eye, as well as eliminating the spasm of accommodation. Myopia is the most popular visual impairment, in which this method of treatment is shown. It is also used as a means of recovery after surgery.
- Surgery. As a rule, laser correction of vision is used in specialized clinics.
Prophylaxis of myopia
It is always easier to prevent a disease than to treat it later. This also applies to myopia.
To prevent a violation it is very important to strictly observe the hygiene of vision, and the earlier you start to do this, the higher the probability of preventing the appearance of a problem.
You also need to monitor the correctness of the landing and the level of illumination during work at the table, reading. Try not to overexert your eyes and periodically let them relax, you can even perform certain exercises with myopia. Click on certain points:
- Little fingers - on the hollow of the internal soldering of the eyelids,
- With index fingers - on 2 cm cavities on the bone,
- The third phalanx of the index finger rub the orbit,
- Little fingers - the point between the end of the eyebrow and the external soldering of the eye.
The number of pressures must be 36 times for each point.
In addition, follow the diet: it should be enough vitamins and trace elements.
If you began to suspect that you are developing myopia (which is what you can learn from the article), do not be afraid to contact a doctor. If you do it on time, you can prevent the development of complications and continue to enjoy the world around you.