Moskvich 412, the legendary car of the past

The Moskvich 412 is the sixth model in the numerous family of "Muscovites" manufactured in different years at the plant MZMA and AZLK. The abbreviation and the title did not play an important role, the cars were mediocre, the financial conditions at the plant were heavy, there was not enough money to develop. After the release of a series of GAZ-AA trucks in the 38-40s, the plant immediately after the start of the Great Patriotic War was transferred to the production of military orders, and with the end of the war the production of the Moskvich-400 car was started, the prototype of which was the German Opel-Cadet K38.

In 1954 the MZMA enterprise completely switched over to the production of a domestic motor vehicle, Moskvich 401, which began to be produced on an industrial scale. Since there were no passenger cars in the USSR, the Moskvich-401 was very useful. In two years, 2 million copies were produced. After the serial production of the 401 model was completed, Moskvich 402 was launched , which was also produced within two years. And in 1958 Moskvich 407, an improved version of the previous model, came off the assembly line. And behind him went to the production and Moskvich 403, which has no significant differences, but still replenished the family of Soviet "Muscovites".

And finally, in 1964 at the plant MZMA started a fundamentally new machine, Moskvich 408. The car was primarily a body, in the outlines of which there were no familiar rounded forms. The body of Moskvich 408 was a fast-flying form, it resembled American limousines in miniature and was slightly "nailed to the ground." In the cabin of the car was still cramped, had to sit up straight, without the ability to move. But the Soviet designers of the sixties and seventies did not even consider such a factor as the convenience of the passenger and the driver in the cabin, not to mention some sort of ergonomic approach to solving the problem.

When the development of the next model was completed in 1967, the new car Moskvich 412, whose characteristics as a whole differed slightly from the previous model, received the same body as the 408. However, the driving qualities of the two models were different, the more powerful engine of the Moskvich 412 significantly Added dynamics to the car, high-speed performance improved, in parallel with the increase in speed, the brake system was improved . The car became more and more competitive in comparison with foreign analogues, but it did not have enough points for safety of operation. Nevertheless, the Moskvich-412 was successfully exported to a number of countries of the socialist camp, and quite large lots.

For a long time at the plant AZLK, already renamed from the former MZMA, both models were produced, Moskvich 412 was produced in a larger quantity. Unification was almost one hundred percent, and the assembly of cars was accelerated every day. There were no automatic transmissions at that time, and the Moskvich 412 was equipped with a four-speed manual gearbox, the car was always a rear-wheel drive with a dry disk clutch, a cardan shaft with a needle cross, a hypoid planetary rear axle and two differentiated semi-axles.

The total length of the body of the car Moskvich 412 was 4252 mm, with a width of 1552 mm and a clearance of 175 mm. Dimensions are quite modest, but in those years the entire automotive industry was focused on the production of small cars, which meant that the cars had to be compact. The front suspension of Moskvich 412 was assembled on silent blocks, with two ball bearings. Of all the aggregates, only the gearbox caused a censure, which often went out of order. Otherwise, the car Moskvich 412, reviews of which are generally good, was recognized as reliable and modern.

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