The requirements for the educational preparation of children in recent years have become much more stringent than before. Now in the kindergarten begin to learn foreign languages, music, logic, get acquainted with the outside world, starting with four years. Coming to the first grade of secondary school, the child already has a significant stock of knowledge. How such a load affects the brain of children, it is too early to say. Certain conclusions can be made only after two or three decades, when several generations will be trained in this program. Nevertheless, literacy in the preparatory group is one of the most important elements of preparation for school, and much attention is paid to it. Teachers believe that, in addition to knowledge, the child needs to learn the skills of educational activity, only then he will be able to perceive new material and effectively use it.
Literacy training in the preparatory group: main aspects
Very often, educators and parents are asked one common question: "Do I have to deal with a child who has not reached the age of 6?" Some people think that before any literacy training begins in the preparatory group, there is no need to make any attempts to develop children in terms of reading.
This opinion is fundamentally erroneous, since the main function of the kindergarten is to prepare the child for school. And here it is very important to start the educational process in the older group, that is, in the second half of preschool childhood.
Famous educators, such as Vygotsky LS, believe that at the age of up to 5 years, the educational program should not yet be sharply differentiated, but starting from the age of five it is necessary to take into account all the features of the development of children's thinking and psyche, applying a clear separation of instruction in Categories. Only this method will achieve the highest results.
The research conducted by the staff of scientific research institutes in the sphere of education showed that it is extremely important to give children knowledge not only in one particular area, but also to provide them with a whole system of concepts and interrelations. In order that preschool children can perceive everything new and learn the material, it is necessary to use a variety of methods of education.
Literacy training in the preparatory group of the kindergarten is one of the most important directions in the process of preparation for the first class. It is necessary for children to learn to understand the sound meanings of spoken and read words.
An indispensable condition for literacy of a child, a teenager and an adult is the ability to compare different units of phonetic reality. In addition, preschool children must develop specific skills of speech activity.
By and large, speech therapists are advised to begin to study sounds and letters in the older group. The fact is that at the age of 4 to 5 years, children have a very acute development of the so-called linguistic flair. During this period they absorb all the new lexical and phonetic information, like a sponge. But after a year this flair gradually decreases. Therefore, it is best to begin early literacy. In the preparatory group, the sound and letter "M", for example, are studied for several sessions, but the children of five years acquire this knowledge in just one or two lessons.
The most popular method of teaching literacy
One of the sources of teaching was the book Ushinsky KD "Native Word", published in the 19th century. It outlined the main methods of teaching children to read and write. Since reading was regarded as one of the most important elements of education, the questions of his teaching were always very relevant.
It is strongly recommended that you read this book before you begin the "Learning Literacy" class. The preparatory group is the most difficult period for preparing children for the school curriculum, so you have to be extremely attentive to the individual mental and psychological characteristics of each child. The techniques developed by linguists and educators will help in this.
Ushinsky created a sound analytical-synthetic method of teaching literacy, which is based on the examination of letters not as separate elements, but as an integral part of words and sentences. This method allows you to prepare a child for reading books. In addition, it provides an opportunity to awaken children's interest in reading and writing, and not just to mechanically memorize and memorize letters. It is very important. Ushinsky proposes to divide the entire teaching process into three parts:
1. Visual study.
2. Written preparatory exercises.
3. Sound lessons that promote reading.
This method has not lost its relevance at the present time. It is based on it that literacy is being built. The preparatory group, whose program is very full, acquaints itself with reading precisely in this sequence. These stages enable the child to provide all the necessary information evenly and gradually.
Literacy training in the preparatory group for Vasilyeva
One of the methods used in kindergarten was developed in the 20th century. Its author was the well-known pedagogue and speech therapist Vasilieva M. A. She developed several programs that need to be dealt with. They are based on the logical sequence on which the lesson "Learning Literacy" should be based. The preparatory group is intended for already quite large children, who can understand a lot. First they need to be taught to separate a separate sound, and then already consider it in textual accompaniment. This method has many features and advantages.
How does Vasilieva proceed with literacy training in the preparatory group? The sound and letter "M", for example, are presented as follows: first the educator simply displays the images in different versions (graphic, volumetric, bright and colorful). Later, when this knowledge is fixed, you can proceed to the next stage. The teacher introduces the children to the words in which this letter is contained. This allows you not only to learn the alphabet, but also to learn the basics of reading. It is this sequence that is most preferable.
Psychological features of education in kindergarten
Before you begin to consider letters and sounds with children, you need to understand several important features. What are the psychological foundations of such a process as literacy? "The preparatory group," Zhurova L. Ye., The author of numerous works in the area under consideration, notes - is an unusually plastic material that allows to perceive and reproduce a variety of concepts and behaviors. " The process of teaching reading depends largely on the methods of teaching. It is very important that the educator correctly focuses the children and sets the bases for preparing them for school. What is the final goal of studying sounds and letters? This is reading and understanding what is written in the book. It is obvious. But before you understand the contents of the book, you need to learn how to correctly perceive it. The text is the graphic reproduction of our speech, which is then converted into sounds. They should be understood by the child. It is very important that a person can reproduce the sound in any word, even an unfamiliar one. Only in this case can we say whether literacy is a success. The preparatory group, whose program includes acquaintance with the Russian alphabet, should become the foundation for further literacy of children.
The child's ability to reproduce sounds
When the baby only appears in the light, it already has congenital reflexes. One of them is the ability to react to surrounding sounds. He responds to the heard words by changing the rhythm of the movements and revitalizing. Already in the third or fourth week of life the child reacts not only to loud sharp sounds, but also to the speech of people around him.
Obviously, a simple phonetic perception of words is not a guarantee of successful learning of reading. The speech of a person is extremely complicated, and in order to understand it, it is necessary that the child reaches a certain level of mental and emotional maturity.
Researchers found that the vast majority of children between the ages of six and seven years can not yet decompose words into syllables. Therefore, literacy training in the preparatory group should be built in strict accordance with these features. In no case should the child be given a task with which his brain is simply not able to cope because of his immaturity.
The direct process of literacy
The methodologists of each educational institution are engaged in the development of the program for acquaintance of preschool children with letters and sounds. That is why classes in various kindergartens can differ substantially. But, despite external discrepancies, the meaning of the educational process is one in the entire education system. It includes the three stages already listed above.
Of course, with the direct study of letters, the teacher takes into account many factors: the mood of the children at a given moment, their number, behavior, and other important trivia that can improve or worsen the perception.
The meaning of sound analysis in learning to read
Lately, many speech therapists have expressed the opinion that the methods by which acquaintance with the reading and writing are taking place are already outdated. They argue that sound analysis at this stage is not so important. That is, you first simply need to ensure that the children remember the graphic representation of letters, without trying to reproduce their sound. But this is not entirely correct. After all, when you say sounds, the child hears them and can better perceive the speech of other people.
Planning literacy training in preparatory groups
If you get into a preschool in the middle of the day, you may get the impression that there is chaos. Children play in small groups, and someone generally sits on a chair and draws. But this is not so. Like everything else that happens in kindergarten, has its own program and literacy training. The preparatory group, whose training planning is subject to the strict recommendations of the Ministry of Education, is no exception. The program is compiled for the academic year, agreed with the methodologists and approved by the person in charge of preschool.
How are the course notes
Literacy is not taught in random order. It at first sight seems that the educator is just playing with the children, but in fact it is part of acquaintance with the letters. The course of the lesson is determined by the teacher, and helps him in this prepared in advance a summary. It indicates the time that will be allocated to study, the topic that should be disclosed, and a rough outline is outlined.
Foreign experience of literacy training
So far, new methods developed by foreign specialists have not been introduced to the Russian preschool education system. The two methods of teaching that come to us from other countries are the most popular: the Montessori and Doman systems.
The first implies an individual approach to each child and comprehensive creative development. The second involves learning not the letters and sounds separately, but at once the whole words. Special cards are used for this. On each of them the word is written. The card is shown to the child for a few seconds, as well as what is pictured on it.
The Montessori method is difficult to implement in municipal kindergartens, as the number of pupils does not allow paying enough attention to each of them individually.
Doman's system is criticized by Russian speech therapists, who claim that it is applicable for learning English, but is not suitable for Russian.