Scientists-theologians, regardless of what religion they profess, are engaged in the interpretation of sources, discuss about certain dogmas, explain to the mere mortals the provisions of books that are compulsory for reading. In Islam, in order to avoid ambiguity of interpretation of the Koran and the Sunnah, ijma is used. Ijma is the unanimity of the mujtahids of one generation over the Shariah norms.
The concept of
It makes sense to talk about ijma, when all the scientists of one community come to a common opinion. If even one mujtahid speaks against, then ijma as such is absent.
Ijma is the consensus of the theological scholars who profess Islam. The opinion of ordinary mortals is not taken into account. Also, the result of discussing the Koran by another community is not significant.
Since ijma is an inference, it can be considered a proof, but not an absolute truth, which is presented by Allah and his prophet Muhammad. Ijm does not include reaching agreement on other, not Shariah norms. The Quran, Sunnah, ijma are the main sources of Sharia. The theology used by theologians also includes kiyas, which will be discussed below.
The Purpose of Ijma
The main books of all Muslims are the Koran and the Sunnah. The sources specify in detail how the way of life of the faithful should be, what one can and should not do to an Islamist, how to act in certain situations. However, Allah and his prophet Muhammad give general recommendations (although many provisions are specified in the Sunnah), but in life there are enough details, therefore, detailed explanations are required. For this, there is ijma.
Theologians distinguish two types of ijma: the final and the supposed. In the first case, we mean the position with which all Muslims, without exception, agree (mandatory fivefold prayer, prohibition of adultery , etc.). If a person does not agree with these arguments, then his faith is not so strong.
Unanimous opinion should not run counter to the dogmas of the Sharia. Ijma, which contradicts the Koran, is unreliable, inconclusively proved, abolished or still contains disagreements.
The general conclusion about this or that norm should be confirmed. Evidence is based on statements by well-known scientists or the content of competent sources.
With the adoption of ijma, all previous disagreements on the issue under consideration are prohibited. It is permissible to cancel the previous position adopted by the mujtahid. Then a new opinion appears.
So that the decision taken by the community sages would come into force, there is no need to wait until the end of the century. Achieving a consensus between scientists makes the fulfillment of the precept mandatory for Muslims from the moment the rule comes into force. Ijma is what concerns all the devout, regardless of status.
Among the theologians, there is no consensus on whether to consider the ijma a silence. Someone thinks that the absence of reproaches, negative statements is a kind of consent, therefore, can be considered as ijma. Other Mujtahids consider the absence of replicas only as evidence of the rightness of the speaker. Still others do not attach any importance to silence, and the fourth argue that ijma has the right to exist if a generation of scientists left this world before any of the sages of the community managed to express disagreement.
Since they arrive in the same way in different ways, the degrees of ijma can be the following:
- Verbal: the point of view on the issue under consideration is expressed through speech, the words "allowed", "mandatory" or "prohibited" are used;
- Silent: the members of the community do not agree and do not object that, as indicated above, some theologians are not considered ijma;
- Achieved without controversy after the ascetics;
- It was established as a result of the exclusion of various points of view after the ascetics.
Theologians do not themselves establish norms that are absent in the Quran and the Sunnah. Mujtahides only interpret the main sources of Sharia from the point of view of religious dogmas and legal norms. In Islam, these concepts are almost identical, since it is believed that the legal sphere (like other aspects of Muslim life) is regulated by Allah and the Messenger.
Ijma and Kiyas
By kiyasom is meant judgment by analogy. If in the main sources there are no specific indications regarding certain actions, the rules are formulated on the basis of other provisions.
Kiyas includes four components:
- The norm for analogy;
- The rule on which an analogy is established;
- The norms of the first provision, extended to the second;
- Unity of provisions in accordance with the Sharia.
For example, the Koran prohibits drinking wine, but says nothing about beer. But beer also contains alcohol. Thanks to the kiyas, the ban also applies to a foamy drink. The initial rule is the exclusion of wine, an analogy - the use of beer, the norm distributed - a ban, and the unity of provisions - the likelihood of alcoholic intoxication.
Quran, ijma, Sunnah, kayas - the basis of the life of Muslims. The Qur'an is a law-forming entity, because it contains the immediate utterances of Allah. In the Sunnah everything is given, proceeding from the Prophet, whose speeches are equated with the words of Allah. Also the word "Sunna" is interpreted as incomplete compliance with the requirements of the Sharia.