The special geographical position of the North Caucasus became one of the main reasons for its extremely rich political history. For many centuries, this historical and geographical region was the arena of the struggle between various peoples and major empires, and its natural beauty attracted travelers and artists.
Geographical position of the North Caucasus. Characteristic
The North Caucasus region includes vast areas bordering the Black Sea and the Psou River in the west and the Caspian Sea in the east. In the north the region extends to the lower Don, and in the south reaches the peaks of the Greater Caucasus Range.
Due to the fact that the North Caucasus region lies at the intersection of transport routes connecting Russia, Turkey, Iran, Ukraine and Azerbaijan, it has great potential for economic development and occupies an important place in international politics. In general, the economic and geographical position of the North Caucasus makes it one of the key regions of the country for international trade and transit.
The administrative region consists of seven national republics, including Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachaevo-Cherkessia, Chechnya, North Ossetia, Ingushetia and Dagestan. Also in this region are the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories and the Rostov Region.
On the Black Sea coast there are large ports and oil terminals. The geographic location of the North Caucasus, whose natural resources are in great demand on the international market, creates excellent preconditions for rapid economic development. One of the main economic sectors of the region is tourism. The existence of a large number of resorts of different specialization makes possible a special geographical location of the North Caucasus. The reactionary resources of the Caucasus are in great demand among holidaymakers.
A wide variety of climatic conditions in the North Caucasus creates favorable conditions for the development of a recreational cluster of the economy. The climatic zones change in this region not only from the west to the east and from the north to the south, but also from the bottom upwards, ie as the height increases relative to the sea level.
Most marine climatic resorts are concentrated in the western part of the region - on the shores of the Azov and Black Seas. In this part, the landscapes vary from the steppe in the north to the subtropical in the south.
On the narrow coastal strip are concentrated the largest resorts: Anapa, Gelendzhik, Sochi and numerous smaller towns, which allow to restore health in sanatoriums and dispensaries built during the Soviet Union. However, in the last decade a large number of spa hotels and recreational complexes have been built all over the coast. Most of all in this respect, Sochi was lucky, the rapid development of which became possible due to the Winter Olympics-20014 held there. In preparation for the territory, not only numerous stadiums were built, but dozens of large hotels both on the coast and in the mountains at an altitude of 2000 meters.
Mineral waters of the North Caucasus
However, not only sea resorts, but also balneological resorts are popular with holidaymakers. Since the middle of the XlX century, the direction of treatment with mineral waters in Pyatigorsk and in neighboring towns, based in the immediate vicinity of the springs, is actively developing. This region is called Mineral Waters. The geographic location of the North Caucasus, the natural conditions of which favor the development of a tourist cluster, attracts millions of tourists annually from different regions of the country.
Special mention is deserved ski resorts, enjoying well-deserved popularity, both Russian and foreign tourists. Despite the fact that the ski runs exist in the Caucasus not for the first decade, the peak of their popularity came at the post-Olympic time. Features of the geographical location of the North Caucasus are such that they create absolutely unique conditions for recreation. So, in the area of Sochi, a traveler can swim in a warm sea in one day and ski in Krasnaya Polyana.
Agriculture as the basis of economic development
The North Caucasus region is one of the most densely populated and economically developed in the whole country. The traditional basis of its economic well-being is agriculture, which in such a favorable climate is extremely productive. The geographical position of the North Caucasus determines the diversity of agricultural crops that can be grown in the open spaces of the Black Sea steppes and the flood meadows of the Stavropol Territory. Krasnodar region is considered the leader in the production of agricultural products, which includes wheat, soy, tomatoes and potatoes. Cattle breeding is also developed: in the Krasnodar Territory, pigs are mainly engaged, while Islamic republics practice transhumance cattle raising with the participation of sheep and goats.
The peculiarities of the geographic location of the North Caucasus are also due to a marked seasonality in some of its parts, which in turn affects the pasture of livestock to more fertile pastures in the summer.
Fossil Natural Resources
First of all, it should be said that the geographical position of the North Caucasus is such that it accounts for only 5% of the water resources that Russia possesses. This allows us to refer the region to areas with low water availability and a large number of water users.
And without that a small amount of water is actively polluted by a large number of industrial enterprises and water discharges from agricultural lands. At the same time, the Caucasus is distinguished by a significant number of sources of thermal waters with high mineralization.
Despite the fact that the geological structure of the territory can not be characterized as well-studied, it can already be said that deposits of polymetallic ores in North Ossetia are especially prominent. Zinc, copper, sulfur, and lead were found on the territory of the republic. In some rocks, impurities of other valuable metals are present in considerable amounts.
Oil: black gold of Dagestan
On the territory of some republics there are rich oil deposits. First of all, this applies to Dagestan, where mining has been carried out since the beginning of the last century. However, the entire Kuban-Azov oil and gas industry covers the vast territories of Chechnya, Ingushetia, the Stavropol Territory and North Ossetia.
A by-product of the oil industry is a significant amount of natural gas produced in the territory of the Kuban lowland and the Azov Upland. In addition, geological exploration is actively conducted in the territories adjacent to the Caspian and Azov Seas, as well as on the shelf.
In addition to oil, energy coals lying in the eastern wing of the Donetsk coal basin, which is partly located on the territory of the Rostov Region, are important sources of energy. The geographic location of the North Caucasus, whose natural resources are of great interest to industry, also allows to organize efficient logistics and delivery of extracted resources to neighboring regions and the international market.
The geographic location of the North Caucasus, a region occupying a special place on the map of Russia, is also highlighted by a very diverse national composition. In turn, the national composition entails a linguistic diversity that enriches the culture not only of neighboring regions, but of the whole country.
For example, in Dagestan alone there are several hundred languages. Unfortunately, the difficult political history of the region had an impact on this factor. A long war for the Caucasus between the Russian Empire and neighboring states led to significant losses among civilians.
During the war, several hundred thousand people were forced to leave their native lands and go to Turkey, whose government provided refugees with land for the establishment of settlements.