First aid for myocardial infarction. Signs of a heart attack

Mortality from diseases of the cardiovascular system is one of the first places. Our vessels carry blood throughout the body, thereby supplying cells and tissues with nutrients and oxygen. The trigger mechanism for all this is a contraction of the heart muscle.

The reasons for stopping the correct blood supply are many. If this occurs in the myocardium, then we can talk about a heart attack. Any heart attack is a threat to human life. That is why first aid is very important in case of a heart attack.

Causes of the disease

Our heart is a muscle, which, like everything in our body, needs a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients. In the case of cessation of normal blood circulation, cell death of a particular site is observed. This leads to the fact that dead tissue is replaced by connective fibers that are not able to contract.

In each case, the area of such a damaged area can be different, so sometimes they say not just a heart attack, but its extensive form. People who are more than 40 years old are most susceptible to such attacks, although it is not uncommon to diagnose such a condition at a young age.

The first signs of a heart attack

The first aid in case of a heart attack plays one of the decisive roles in saving a person's life. But sometimes the clinical manifestations are blurred, which makes it difficult to diagnose, and this leads to a loss of precious time.

Symptoms can depend on many factors, for example, the area of the affected area of the muscle or the degree of disruption of the heart. At the first suspicions on an infarction it is necessary to urgently cause "first aid". It is better to be reinsured once again than to bite your elbows for not providing timely assistance.

All manifestations of myocardial infarction can be divided into several criteria, according to which the correct diagnosis is made:

  1. Pain syndrome, usually behind the breastbone and in the heart.
  2. Disturbances in the work of the myocardium, which easily fixes the cardiogram.
  3. Change in biochemical blood test.

The problem is that not everyone with a heart attack can have a pronounced pain syndrome. Sometimes it has an unusual localization.

Symptomatic of the disease

First aid for myocardial infarction only then will be effective when the correct diagnosis is made. There are some symptoms that facilitate this process and clearly indicate violations in the work of the heart:

  • Pain behind the sternum, which can give in hand, under the scapula and neck.
  • After taking Nitroglycerin, the pain intensity does not decrease.
  • A person can lose consciousness.
  • The skin becomes pale, a cold sweat appears.

But only these obvious companions of the heart attack can not always be observed, in some cases a person does not feel pain in the heart, but interruptions in his work. Such situations can lead to confusion when setting the right diagnosis, especially at home. Infarction begins to take quite for other diseases.

Predecessors of the disease in women

At a young age, women are less prone to heart attacks, and women's sex hormones are on guard for their cardiovascular health. But with the onset of menopause this protection decreases, and heart diseases begin to attack the female body.

Our subconscious mind and brain perceive problems in the work of internal organs much earlier than obvious symptoms will begin to manifest. The body tries to warn about it, signaling with various signs. This is the case with a heart attack.

Even before the onset of the attack itself, it is possible, by some manifestations, to ascertain its approach. If you know about it, first aid for myocardial infarction will become more effective.

Here are some signs that signal the approach of an attack in women:

  • Snoring in a dream or short-term stopping of breathing.
  • Strong fatigue and weakness throughout the body. If for men this may not be scary, then for the female body it is a signal of an impending heart attack.
  • The dream is broken.
  • There are problems in the work of the digestive tract.
  • Bleeding gums due to irregularities in the work of the heart muscle.
  • Appear edema.
  • Arrhythmia.
  • Pain in the left forearm.
  • Shortness of breath and shortness of breath.
  • Hypertension.
  • Frequent urination at night.

If there are even some signs, then a woman should consult a doctor.

Manifestation of myocardial infarction in women

If you quickly recognize the signs of a heart attack in a woman, first aid will be more effective. The first symptoms include:

  • Pain in the left side of the chest.
  • There may be a feeling of heaviness in the chest.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Burning sensation in the upper abdomen or chest.
  • Aching aching pain.
  • Painful sensations in the nape.
  • Dyspnea appears when the body position changes.
  • Severe sweating.
  • Sharp decrease in pressure.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • The speech becomes vague.
  • Fear and panic.
  • Decreased visual acuity.

Even if there are some signs of a heart attack in a woman, first aid should be reduced, first of all, to the call of a qualified team of medical workers.

Signs of a heart attack in men

Heart problems in the strong half of mankind are usually manifested rather brightly. If there are signs of a heart attack in men, first aid should be timely in order to save a person's life.

Because of the brightness and combination of manifestation, often the attack is confused with heart failure, which can be triggered by many factors.

Men have a group of diseases, which is a common cause of heart attack. It can include the following problems:

  • Atherosclerosis.
  • Surgical obturation of arteries.
  • Congenital pathologies in the structure of the heart muscle.
  • Spasm of the coronary vessels.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Diabetes.

As well as in women, harbingers of a heart attack may appear long before the attack. To them it is possible to carry:

  • Feelings of anxiety, fear and anxiety.
  • Attacks of angina pectoris.
  • Cardiopalmus.

In some cases, signs of a heart attack in men are quite sharp. First aid, which in this case is, can greatly affect the future fate of man.

Usually, myocardial infarction in the male half of mankind is manifested as follows:

  1. Strong and prolonged pain in the area of the heart muscle. She appears suddenly, and even Nitroglycerin does not help her.
  2. Painful sensations can cover the lower jaw, the left arm, and the neck.
  3. Arterial blood pressure jumps, at first there can be a sharp increase, and then a decline.
  4. Dizziness, nausea and vomiting.
  5. The rise in temperature is usually observed after some time after the onset of pain. This can be explained by poisoning the body with dying cells.
  6. Asthmatic attacks in the form of a feeling of lack of air, shortness of breath and intermittent breathing.

Each organism is individual, therefore, not necessarily in the event of an onset of a heart attack, all of the listed signs will appear. First aid for an infarction should be given immediately.

What is the difference between the symptoms of a female and a male heart attack?

Women suffer from a heart attack much less often. This can be explained by the peculiarities of their body. There are also signs of a heart attack also in different ways, there are several reasons for this:

  1. The female heart is smaller in size than the male heart.
  2. The heart rate in the female body is up to 90 beats per minute, and for men - only 70-80.
  3. Female hormones estrogens serve as additional protection for the heart and blood vessels. In the male body, there are no such defenders.

Despite various manifestations and differing signs of a heart attack, first aid Practically reduces to the same for both men and women.

What to do before the arrival of doctors?

If a heart attack in a person happened at home, then first aid for a heart attack at home should be reduced to the following:

  1. Call "ambulance".
  2. Since it is difficult to make an accurate diagnosis at first sight, it is necessary to pack a person, unbutton the top buttons on clothes.
  3. If a patient often suffers from heart attacks, he usually carries with him "Nitroglycerin", which must be placed under the tongue in the amount of one tablet. If there are no doctors for a long time, then you need to repeat these actions every 15 minutes.
  4. Talk with the patient to calm him down somehow. You can give a little sedative, for example, a motherwort tincture.
  5. Be sure to give the tablet "Aspirin", it prevents thrombosis.
  6. If the heart stops during a heart attack, first aid in case of a heart attack should be aimed at restoring the work of the most important organ. To do this, you need to do artificial respiration in combination with an indirect heart massage. In this situation, the main thing is to distinguish the loss of consciousness from cardiac arrest.

In time to provide first aid is very important in case of a heart attack. This can save a person's life. Most of the deaths associated with a heart attack are due to inaction of others.

Helping a patient in a hospital

Doctors "ambulance" continue to maintain a satisfactory state of the patient before coming to the hospital. The first medical aid for a heart attack in a hospital is based on pronounced symptoms and consists in the following:

  1. First of all, you need to stop pain. For this, the patient is administered "Droperidol" and "Fetanil". It is necessary at the same time to monitor the patient's condition, because these drugs can have a side effect - respiratory depression.
  2. Attack of tachycardia can be eliminated with a solution of Isoptin. At the atrial fibrillation, the application of "Panangin", "Novokainamid" is shown.
  3. If the clogging of the arteries is caused by thrombi, then the fight with them is carried out by fibrotic therapy.

After stabilization of the patient's condition, the question of surgical intervention regarding stenting or aortocoronary shunting may be raised .

The functioning of the heart depends on the functioning of the whole organism. His health must be treated with all responsibility and seriousness. Then you will not need to help with a heart attack.

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