The electoral districts and polling stations are the territories where voting is taking place. They are created in accordance with constitutional, federal, regional laws, as well as municipal regulations. Let's consider further how the formation of electoral districts and polling stations takes place.
The electoral districts and polling stations have a number of distinctive features. First of all, it should be noted that the voting in these territories is carried out by citizens. This means that the formation of electoral districts, polling stations is not allowed in uninhabited areas. It should be noted one nuance. As an electoral district, only the territory on which citizens of the Russian Federation live can act. According to the legislation, the population voting is carried out directly. Norms provide for rules, which are used to distribute polling stations in electoral districts. It must be such that the boundaries of the former do not go beyond the limits of the latter.
Electoral districts, plots, commissions: specificity
It is necessary to note a number of features characteristic of the territories where elections are held. First and foremost, it must be said that electoral districts and polling stations are established on the basis of different normative acts. Order for the first is established exclusively by federal, constitutional legislation. Electoral precincts are formed by heads of local administrations of municipal districts no later than 45 days prior to the beginning of voting. In this regard, data on the number of voters are taken into account. The creation of plots is carried out in agreement with the commissions at the rate of no more than 3 thousand citizens per territory.
The convocation of the latter is carried out on the basis of proposals from political parties, other public associations, the representative body of the Ministry of Defense, a meeting of citizens at the place of work, residence, study or service. The creation of precinct commissions is carried out by higher territorial structures. In accordance with the requirements of the law, the latter appoint at least 1/2 of the total number of PEC members. The number of participants holding a decisive vote depends on the number of voting citizens in a particular territory:
- Up to 1001 - 3-9 members.
- From 1001 to 2001 - 7-12.
- More than 2000 - 7-16.
The electoral districts and polling stations differ from each other on a territorial basis. The first are created exclusively in the Russian Federation. Electoral precincts can be formed outside the country, in places of temporary residence of citizens, remote and hard-to-reach areas, military units, ships navigating on voting day, at polar stations. Territories for expressing the will of the population are created in foreign countries when conducting elections to the bodies of state power by the leadership of diplomatic representations or consulates. In this case, the requirement of the maximum number of voting citizens may not apply. In the areas of temporary stay (in sanatoria, hospitals, rest homes, etc.), in remote, inaccessible localities, on ships in navigation, and also at polar stations, the formation of polling stations is made no later than 5 days before the voting date.
It exists only for counties. Separation is carried out depending on the number of persons for whom a vote is taken. Thus, the districts can be multi-and single-mandate. In addition, the classification is based on the principle that underlies their creation. By this criterion, the districts are subdivided into administrative-territorial and territorial ones. There is also an additional division according to the elective system used. It can be majority, proportional, mixed.
A single-mandate district is called a district where one deputy is elected. Such territories are created when voting on the majority system. A district will always be single-mandate, in which a vote is taken for a president or an official of the Defense Ministry. Several candidates may be put to the vote. In this case, the district will be multi-mandate. In the bulletin there are several names, in front of which the citizen puts a sign (tick) in the square. Elections are also held by the majority system. The difference is that the citizen has as many votes as there are candidates in the ballot.
Rules for creating
Electoral districts are formed in accordance with the data on the number of citizens registered in the territory. Their scheme is determined not later than 80 days before the start of voting. It identifies their boundaries, lists the administrative-territorial units (MOs, populated areas) included in each district. If these areas are only partially included, this should be indicated in the diagram. In addition, the number of each district, the location of the commissions or only that of which the main powers are assigned, as well as the number of voters are indicated. A representative municipal / state body approves the scheme no later than 20 days before the end of the term of the voting. However, he has the right to make adjustments to the scheme.
The electoral districts and polling stations of Moscow and Moscow region
Their scheme is approved by the resolution of the Regional Duma. In 2016, amendments were made to the normative act adopted in 2015. Some addresses of polling stations have been corrected. The Krasnogorsky constituency 120, for example, included the eponymous municipal district. In addition, it included Istrinsky MR with urban and rural settlements, such as Dedovsk, Istra, Pavlo-Slobodskoye, Obushkovskoye, Ivanovo. The Moscow electoral districts and polling stations were not so diverse. The first, as a rule, coincide territorially with joint-stock company. For example, the electoral district of the site number 58 is located in the Central Administrative District, at 2 Krasnoselsky per., 18.
Voting in 2016 in Abkhazia
9 sites were formed on the territory of the Republic. They were located in such cities as Sukhum, Gagra, Pitsunda, Gudauta, Ochamchira, Tkuarchal, Gal, and also in Bambora. At the same time, some places for voting were attributed to the regions of the Russian Federation. Thus, for example, polling stations in the Daursky single-mandate district covered citizens who are territorially located within such cities as Gal, Tkuarchal, Ochamchyra, and the same-named districts.
When forming districts, certain conditions must be met. Among them, it should be noted:
- Observance of the approximate equality of single-mandate constituencies in the number of voters with an allowable deviation from the average rate is no more than 10%, in remote, remote areas - no more than 30%. Another rule is provided for the second category of territories. In the formation of multi-mandate constituencies, the approximate equality of the voters for 1 mandate is observed. In this case, allowable deviations are determined. They are established - no more than 10% of the average rate multiplied by the number of mandates for this district. For remote, remote areas, this indicator increases to 15%.
- When creating districts in areas of compact residence of small indigenous peoples, the permissible deviation may be higher than the limit specified in the legislation. At the same time the indicator should not be more than 40%.
- The electoral district is formed on a single territory. It is unacceptable to create it on localities that do not border each other. An exception is the enclave territory.
If the last paragraph is observed, the administrative structure of the region or the Ministry of Defense is taken into account. The list of remote, hard-to-reach areas is determined by the legislation of the entity that came into effect before the date of the official promulgation of the decision to appoint a vote.
The above requirements may not be met if elections are scheduled for federal bodies of state power, other state structures, and the legislation, at the same time, provides for the mandatory formation of at least 1 constituency within each region of the Russian Federation. Along with this, the provisions of the first sentence may not be fulfilled. In particular, this is allowed when forming one independent one-mandate constituency within the JSC included in the structure of another region of the Russian Federation, which includes the said JSC wholly during the election of deputies of the representative (legislative) body of the state authority of the entity. If the implementation of the provisions of the first proposal entails the creation of a territory for voting, which will include parts of more than one MO, a deviation from the average rate is allowed not more than 20%. A similar rule applies in cases where it is possible to form a district that includes the areas of one / several MOs and part of another municipality. This provision refers to the creation of territories for voting when choosing deputies of the representative (legislative) institute of state power in the region.
Publication (publication) of the circuit of districts, including their graphic representation, is assigned to the relevant representative body of state / municipal authority, the election commission responsible for organizing the elections. It is carried out not later than 5 days after approval. When forming multi-mandate districts, the number of mandates that should be distributed in it should not exceed 5. Of this rule, however, there are exceptions. The restriction does not apply to the appointment of elections to the territorial authorities of another MO in the district formed within the polling station.
In general, the system of forming electoral districts and polling stations is quite simple. When creating territories for voting, authorized structures are guided first of all by the administrative division existing in the country. In addition, the number of citizens living in a given locality is taken into account. Voting sites are always smaller than districts. They can be created not only directly on the territory of the Russian Federation, but also beyond its borders.
It is also possible to form sections on ships that are floating (they are included in the composition of the districts at the place of registration of the ship). Voting is also conducted in military units, at polar stations. These polling stations are included in the districts according to their location. When organizing elections, the authorized bodies set the task to cover as many people as possible. To ensure that voters know where they should exercise their right, plotting schemes are published. Abroad, voting is organized on the territory of diplomatic representations and consulates.