Dolls of the USSR. Toys of Soviet children
After the Civil War and the Revolution for the dolls, as for people, hard times came. Manufacture of toys has stopped at all, factories were closed, and instead of them small artels appeared. Many families themselves invented and invented for children of fun, carving from a tree of horses, boats, trains or little men. And when the toys returned, they had completely different faces, types and heroes.
Manufacturers emphasized the manufacture of toys in the image of peasants, workers, pioneers. This practice was considered as an educational and political component. Bourgeois dolls were also banned, also depicting ladies with cavaliers and in the form of clergy.
What made toys from
Materials such as porcelain and lace were a luxury, so first famous toys were made of fabric or wood, filled with shavings and cotton in single copies. Since 1936, enterprises have mastered a new technology - hot pressing of parts, which greatly accelerated the process. Thus there was a doll of the USSR. "March 8" - that's when they called one of the legendary Moscow artels for the manufacture of children's toys, which has brought up for generations of work more than one generation.
In addition to favorite little girls for girls, there are also pilots, Red Army men in Budyonnovka, workers of different specialties. In the puppet images great importance was attached to the individuality created by the artists.
Business, serious with a cold look, even send to the collective farm to fulfill a five-year plan - such at first were dolls of the USSR, who depicted the severity of the era. Later Stalin ordered all toy products to be done with smiles. Factories also specialize in making additions to your favorite toy in the form of utensils (small plates and cups), furniture and cribs.
Gradually, since the 1930s, more expensive dolls with details from real porcelain began to appear in Soviet stores. The details of these toys echo the words of Pinocchio, who offended Malvina shouted: "The head is porcelain, the body is filled with cotton wool, and still teaches."
What was the difference between dolls in the USSR and our contemporaries?
The dolls of the USSR are strikingly different from modern analogues. At that time, the accent was made on the fact that through the game the child formed an idea of the world around him. The person who developed the toy had to prove the educational value for the child. Dolls in the past were more like little girls with the appropriate age characteristics: puffy legs, pens and a healthy blush on the face.
From today's Barbie doll Masha was distinguished by plump lips, cheeks, childlike physique, she really reminded a little daughter to play in her mother's daughters. Western dolls tend to be portrayed in the image of an adult girl with painted eyes and lips and corresponding body shapes ready for a relationship with the bridegroom Ken.
Child psychologists say that the presence of adult forms, a large house and a car for Barbie causes children the desire for a good life and premature relations with the opposite sex.
Great attention to quality
Earlier, in the Soviet period, in order to release a toy, it was necessary to pass about forty different instances and inspections. The Soviet manufacturer did not know of any dangerous dyes and fillers. What children touched should not cause allergy, break or fall apart in the near future, meet standards and GOSTs, be approved for a certain age group, have an educational function. In this regard, parents should pay much attention to what they buy the child.
Soviet dolls were simple: the head, legs and arms were made of plastic in pink, the body could be either rag or plastic, the hair stiff in different shades, depending on the character. The little daughters were dressed in simple cotton summer dresses. In the late 1950s a novelty appeared - a German beauty with closed eyes, every girl dreamed of this doll. But the classic version was still more popular due to the fact that the faces of the German dolls were not given the same childish naivety.
Dolls in national costumes and puppets
In the middle of the 20th century, producers produced Soviet dolls in national dresses of the republics. They were very relevant in 1957 on the eve of the World Moscow Festival of Youth and Students, also these dolls were used as exhibition exhibits in different countries.
The dolls of the USSR were also represented by small puppies. These kids were sold without clothes, which implied the development of sewing skills for little girls. In general, the pups were sexless, so the owner of such a toy herself decided whether the boy had a girl or a girl. Pupsik dolls fit in a pocket, some were made with movable handles and legs on elastic bands.
Development of toys and factories
The famous "Children's World" on Lubyanka Square was opened in 1957. This department store was supposed to stimulate post-war fertility - for the first time since the revolution a shop with such a rich choice for children and their parents opened.
Contests were created for the best inventions of toys, brought fakes were evaluated and exhibited in the showroom.
By the sixties, no longer small craftsmen were making dolls of the USSR, the factories took up this task closely, trying to keep pace with the times and to follow what interests society and children are interested in. During the space age, the factories responded by mass production of rockets, aircraft, pilots, and cosmonauts. Popular cartoon characters were also in great demand for creating new characters. The highlight of the program was the crocodile Gene, as well as Cheburashka, Pinocchio, Cipolino, Puss in Boots.
Why you need to appreciate today's diversity
Today, children's toy stores offer a huge choice, sales consultants can help at any time, but in the Soviet times such fun for the girl, like the Masha doll, was a deficit. Most of the children were satisfied with the wooden or homemade products of loving parents. In order to get the scarce fun for the child, in Soviet times it was necessary to stand in line all day and go to the store for coupons, and it's not a fact that on this day the line will reach the person who wants it.