Bushehr NPP is the first and only nuclear power plant in Iran and the Middle East, which is located not far from the city of Bushehr. The construction of the facility caused a number of claims to Iran from other states, but at the moment the NPP project is successfully completed, and the power plant itself was put into operation.
History of creation
The foundation of the future nuclear power plant was laid in 1975, but after a while the construction of the Bushehr nuclear power plant was frozen. Only after forty six years it continued.
The construction contract was signed between Iran and Germany by one of the branches of Siemens Corporation. However, after the sanctions imposed by the American authorities against Iran, West Germany fully supported its allies and quickly closed down all the works that had been started to build the station.
After the signing of the agreement on cooperation and the use of nuclear power plants for peaceful purposes between the Russian Federation and Iran in 1992, Russian specialists took up the construction work. Iranian contractors, with the support of Russian scientists and highly qualified installation professionals, have made it possible to prepare the station for launch in 2007. At the same time, a new agreement was signed between the two countries, this time on the long-term supply of fuel from Novosibirsk to the nuclear power plant. However, due to economic and political problems, the Bushehr nuclear power plant was restarted.
Finally, in 2009, the necessary amount of fuel was delivered to the nuclear power plant and loaded, and the reactor was tested for safety.
Bushehr nuclear power plant launch
After countless inspections at the end of summer 2012, the final stage of commissioning of the NPP has come. Then the reactor was withdrawn to 100% approved capacity project. But at the beginning of the work the station was not without failures:
- Three months after the launch, the operation of the nuclear power plant was halted due to the injection of parts of the pump into the reactor;
- The accident in February 2013 stopped the reactor due to a breakdown in the turbine generator, but by June Bushehr NPP had already been functioning.
The importance of nuclear power plants
According to 2006 statistics, Iran consumed quite a large amount of electricity - 136.2 billion kW / h, producing about 170 billion kW / h.
The largest part of the electricity production in Iran (93%) was carried out by thermal power plants operating on oil products and gas. The remaining 7% is the share of hydroelectric power stations. There were no other ways of obtaining electricity (alternative) as of 2006 in the country.
Due to the shortage of capacities for the processing of oil products, Iran has to import the missing electricity in large quantities. This problem was especially acute in 2007, when, due to a lack of capacity in the country, even a restriction was imposed on the supply of gasoline to individuals. To date, the government has developed a program to increase electricity generation, so the introduction of several nuclear power units will help solve the problem of power shortage once and for all.
Defenders and opponents of NPP construction
Against the construction and launching of the nuclear reactor, earlier, Israel and the United States have spoken earlier. The main complaint of the governments of these countries is that Iran is not completely honest with the world community and wants to use atomic energy for military purposes. In particular, for the introduction of nuclear weapons into the defense sector of the state.
Suspicions arose because Iran was not a world convention on nuclear safety at the time of its construction. In connection with these claims until 2000, journalists often raised the topic of a possible military operation against Iran by the forces of the United States of America.
The second power station unit
When the Bushehr plant was built, Russia proved to be a responsible contractor with a large number of high-level specialists who successfully used Western equipment purchased for the construction that was not completed in 1975.
Competitiveness in the nuclear energy market Russia has won thanks to high economic ratios, reliability and safety of technical solutions and the ability to work on credit. These are the main reasons why the Iranian government continues to work with Russia at the stage of construction of the second station unit.
November 2014 was marked by the signing of an agreement between the countries on the construction of the second stage of the reactor. According to the head of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran Ali Akbar Salehi, the new reactor will allow the state to save about 11 barrels of oil per year. The starting point for the second NPP unit was September 2016.
The construction of the Bushehr-2 nuclear power plant in Iran is currently at the stage of development and approval of all necessary documentation for the project. Most recently - September 10, 2016 - construction has reached a new level. It was on this day that the foundation of the second block of the Bushehr nuclear power plant was laid thanks to the cooperation of the two states. Photos from the event have already flown around the world. "Rosatom" has already committed to develop the current project, as well as the third unit of the station. The deadline for submitting the developed documentation for the project is the beginning of the summer of 2019. The cost of development will be 1.78 billion rubles.
Reactors installed on the second and third unit of the station must meet all modern safety requirements. Therefore, the designers have developed modern high-tech installations that take into account the practical experience accumulated by the world's developers. According to today's documentation, the project is planned to be implemented in ten years. The first start-up and commissioning of the Bushehr-2 NPP should take place in the autumn of 2024, and the Bushehr-3 inspection and commissioning is planned for the spring of 2026.
Atomic energy today allows any country not to depend on gas and oil products. NPPs do not pollute the environment, economically consume fuel and at the same time have high power. The main disadvantage of any nuclear power plants are the serious consequences of accidents, even if their probability is low.
In addition, nuclear power today provides any country with reliability in the energy system, and nuclear generation is the most environmentally friendly way of generating electricity after alternative sources using wind, solar, and other energy as fuel. The production of electricity using nuclear power plants is inexpensive, which allows any country to sell its products with excellent benefits. In addition, power plants allow any country to save natural resources such as methane, oil and others.
As for the Bushehr AER, the foundation of the third block should be implemented by 2018, and long-term projects require the construction of eight power units of the nuclear power plant.