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Chemical composition of human bones. What is the chemical composition of bones?

From school lessons in chemistry, everyone knows that the human body contains almost all elements from the periodic table of DI Mendeleyev. The percentage of some is very significant, while others are present only in trace amounts. But each of the chemical elements in the body fulfills its important role. In the human body, mineral substances are contained in the form of salts, organic are represented as carbohydrates, proteins and others. Deficiency or excess of any of them leads to disruption of normal life activity.

The chemical composition of bones includes a number of elements and their substances, to a greater extent they are calcium salts and collagen, and others, the percentage of which is much smaller, but their role is no less significant. Strength and health of the skeleton depends on the balance of the composition, which, in turn, is determined by a variety of factors, from a healthy diet and ending with the ecological environment.

Connections that form the skeleton

The chemical composition of bones includes substances of organic and inorganic origin. Exactly half of the mass is water, the remaining 50% is divided by ossein, fat and calcareous, phosphoric calcium and magnesium salts, and sodium chloride. The mineral part accounts for about 22%, and the organic part, represented by proteins, polysaccharides, citric acid and enzymes, fills about 28%. Bones contain 99% of calcium, which is in the human body. A similar component composition has teeth, nails and hair.

Transformations in various environments

In the anatomical laboratory, the following analysis can be performed to confirm the chemical composition of the bones. To determine the organic part, the tissue is exposed to an acid solution of medium strength, for example, hydrochloric, with a concentration of about 15%. In the resulting medium, calcium salts dissolve, and the ossein "skeleton" remains untouched. Such a bone acquires the maximum property of elasticity, in the literal sense it can be tied into a knot.

The inorganic component that enters the chemical composition of human bones can be identified by burning out the organic part, it is easily oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. The mineral core is characterized by its former form, but by extreme fragility. The slightest mechanical effect - and it just crumbles.

When the bones enter the soil, the bacteria process the organic matter, and the mineral part is completely impregnated with calcium and converted to stone. In places where there is no access to moisture and microorganisms, the tissues eventually undergo natural mummification.

Through a microscope

Any textbook on anatomy will tell you about the chemical composition and structure of bones. At the cellular level, tissue is defined as a special type of connective tissue. At the core lie collagen fibers surrounded by plates composed of a crystalline substance - a calcium mineral - hydroxylapatite (basic phosphate). In parallel, starlike hollows containing bone cells and blood vessels are located. Thanks to its unique microscopic structure, such a fabric is surprisingly light.

Basic functions of connections of different nature

Normal operation of the musculoskeletal system depends on the chemical composition of the bones, whether the organic and mineral substances are contained in sufficient quantities. Calcareous and phosphoric calcium salts, which constitute 95% of the inorganic part of the skeleton, and some other mineral compounds determine the property of hardness and bone strength. Thanks to them, the fabric is resistant to serious loads.

The collagen component and its normal content are responsible for such a function as elasticity, resistance to compression, stretching, bending and other mechanical influences. But only in the coordinated "union" of the organic and mineral component provides the bone tissue with those unique properties that it possesses.

Composition of bones in childhood

The percentage of substances that says what the chemical composition of human bones is, can vary from one and the same representative. Depending on age, lifestyle and other factors of influence, the number of these or those compounds may vary. In particular, in children, bone tissue is only formed and consists mostly of the organic component - collagen. Therefore, the skeleton of the child is more flexible and elastic.

To properly form the baby's tissues, vitamins are very important. In particular, such as D3. Only in his presence the chemical composition of bones is fully replenished with calcium. Deficiency of this vitamin can lead to the development of chronic diseases and excessive fragility of the skeleton due to the fact that the tissue in time was not filled with Ca 2+ salts.

Skeleton of an adult

The chemical composition of the bones of a person who has undergone adolescence is significantly different from that of a child. Now the ratio of the mineral and ossein parts is roughly compared. Disappears special flexibility of bone tissue, but the strength of the skeleton due to the inorganic component increases at times. Its physical properties are comparable to a reinforced concrete structure or cast iron, and the elasticity is even greater than that of oak wood.

In full, to ensure a balanced chemical composition of human bones (the table below shows the normal percentage of all substances that make up the skeleton) can be due to proper lifestyle, nutritional and health care.

Name or type of connection Percentage Name of mineral compound Percentage
Water 50% Calcium Phosphate 85%
Fat 16% Phosphorous calcium 9%
Organic substances (Ossein) 12% Calcium carbonate 3%
Inorganic substances 22% Magnesium Phosphate 1.5%
Sodium chloride 0.25%
Potassium chloride 0.25%
Other inorganic substances 1%
Total 100% 100%

Changes in the chemical composition of bones in the elderly

The chemical composition of human bones is broken to old age, which leads to serious consequences. Older people complain about problems with the musculoskeletal system, they often have fractures that heal longer than the child or adult. This is a consequence of the increase in the content of inorganic salts in the skeleton, their number reaches 80%. Lack of collagen, therefore, a decrease in such properties as elasticity, leads to the fact that the bones become extremely fragile. Restoring the balance is possible with the help of special medications, but still this process can not be stopped or turned back. This is the physiological feature of the body.

For health and normal operation of the skeleton, it is necessary to follow the correct filling of bone tissue with all chemical elements and compounds from childhood, only in this case it is possible to lead a full and active lifestyle.

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