Biochemistry of urine: collection rules and indicators of the norm

The analysis of urine gives information on the state of the whole organism and each organ separately. Thus, the early stage of the disease is detected, and the diagnosis is also specified. For timely and effective treatment it is necessary to know how the urine biochemistry is carried out correctly. In addition, knowledge of the interpretation of its indicators will be required. This may be necessary for the patient himself. But basically the deciphering is necessary for the attending physician.

By what rules does urine collect?

Most often, daily urine biochemistry is carried out - that is, urine collected in the morning on an empty stomach is analyzed.

One day before the study, alcoholic beverages from the diet, fatty foods, spicy and sweet dishes are completely excluded. The food that will be able to stain urine is not recommended. This includes asparagus, beets, blueberries, rhubarb. The liquid can be used in the same quantities.

Exclude drugs

The reception of uroseptics and antibiotics is stopped the day before the urine is given for analysis. If the patient takes any vitamin complexes or any other medications, the doctor should be informed of this. Then it will be possible to more accurately decipher the results. Indicators can be changed under the influence of certain means, this must be known. The diagnosis as a result will be incorrectly placed, the subsequent treatment will also be ineffective.

About intimate hygiene

Biochemistry of urine is not performed during menstruation in women. But if it is still necessary, then you need to apply a tampon.

Intimate hygiene must be observed without fail before passing urine. Antibacterial and disinfectant preparations should be avoided, but with normal soap and warm water. This will also contribute to correct results when decrypting. Biochemistry of blood and urine are always held together.

It is necessary to use a special disposable container for collecting urine. It can be bought at any pharmacy. So you can avoid unnecessary searches for clean containers. But in the absence of an opportunity to buy something suitable ordinary glass jar of a small size. It must be thoroughly washed with soda and hot water, then pour with boiling water. The packaging must be tightly closed.

Then the biochemistry of urine will be informative. How to collect it correctly?

Robert's test involves collecting urine for 24 hours. The time of the first collection is marked, the last one is held after 24 hours.

Keep the urine, before you pass, you need a dark room, there must be cool.

Biochemistry of urine - transcript

The analysis of urine is determined by the following indicators:

  • The amount of urine released per day. So determine kidney disease or poisoning with heavy metals.
  • Consistency of fluid indicating that there are pathologies in the excretory system.
  • Presence of potassium, which determines hormonal failures.
  • The quantitative content of chlorine, calcium and sodium, which can detect metabolic disorders in the body, diabetes, kidney disease.
  • The presence of protein as evidence of inflammation.
  • The presence of uric acid - this means that the activity of the joints is broken, for example, there is gout or arthrosis.
  • A sharp fluctuation in the level of cholinesterase, indicating that the liver does not cope with its functions.

Correctly to decipher the analysis and to define in the subsequent probable diseases the doctor can only. What can influence the result? It completely depends not only on the content of certain substances in the material provided for research, but also on sex, age, current status and preliminary analysis. The biochemistry of urine is very informative.

Main factors

The patient himself can, with the help of some indicators in the analysis, determine whether he needs treatment or not. We give these indicators below.

  1. Determination of the enzyme amylase, which produces the pancreas salivary glands. It is excreted by the kidneys. With the help of this indicator, the protein substance is cleaved. Its norm in urine is 10-1240 units / liter. If the level is greatly exceeded, then the functions of the pancreas can be disturbed, and parotid salivary glands have certain problems.
  2. The content of total protein in the urine. With the help of this analysis, the presence of all the proteins in the body is determined. Normal value is 0-0,033 g / l. If it is more, this may indicate allergic reactions, chronic infections in the urinary tract, kidneys, reproductive system, autoimmune diseases, myeloma, diabetes mellitus.
  3. When determining the level of glucose, it is revealed how correctly the carbohydrate metabolism is carried out. The norm in glucose urine is 0,03-0,05 g / l. With diabetes and kidney diseases, the level may increase to some extent.
  4. The optimal indicator of uric acid is 0.4-1.0 g per day, there may be gout or other joint diseases with an increase in this indicator.


What else reveals the urine test for biochemistry?

Determine not only common indicators, but additional ones. They can also tell a lot about the presence of the disease in humans, and it is so easy to identify even the early stage of the disease. The effectiveness of therapy depends on this.

As a result of protein metabolism, urea is formed in the body. In the norm it should not be more than 333-586 mmol per day. But with a high concentration of this indicator, it is more likely that proteins break down in the body. It happens during the period of fasting or because of taking glucocorticoids. A low level of urea indicates that there is acute and chronic kidney failure and there is a disruption of the liver.

Therefore, biochemistry of urine is carried out. The norm depends on the age of the patient. About this further.

Creatinine and microalbumin

When creatine phosphate decomposes, creatinine is released. It is directly involved in the functions of muscle tissue. The filtration work of the kidneys is disturbed at a lowered level of this substance in the urine. A person develops glomerulonephritis and chronic pyelonephritis.

The protein of the blood plasma microalbumin, which together with the urine leaves the body, also has an informative value. Normally, it should be 3.0-4.24 mmol per day in urine. If this indicator is exceeded, it indicates that the kidneys are working with impairments. This can be affected by diabetes and hypertension in the early stages.

Other components

Phosphorus is the most important substance that forms bone tissue and most cells. His rate in urine is 0.4-1.4 g per day. If there are any deviations from these indicators in one direction or another, kidney activity is most likely broken, there are problems with bone tissue.

Potassium is another important element, age and diet affect its content in the urine. When urine biochemistry is performed in children, a lower amount of potassium is detected than in an adult. The doctor before the analysis should talk about his diet and regime of the day. The normal indicator is 38.3-81.7 mmol per day. If there are deviations, the work of the adrenal and kidney is broken, and there is an intoxication of the body.

The role of magnesium in the body is great. It participates in the structure of cells and the activation of enzymes. 3.0-4.24 mmol per day is the norm. Nervous, cardiovascular and urinary systems suffer from deviations from the optimal level.

Sodium is normally present in the urine in an amount of 100 to 255 mmol per day. Age, consumption of sodium salts and water balance affect the level of sodium. Decrease or increase occurs in diabetes mellitus, kidney and adrenal gland diseases, craniocerebral trauma.

Biochemistry of urine can also determine the level of calcium in the body. This is the main building element for bone tissue. Takes part in muscular work and joint functions. Responsible for the secretion of hormones and clotting of blood. With the increase of calcium in urine, the following diseases are associated: myeloma, acromegaly, osteoparosis, hyperparathyroidism. Malignant diseases of bone tissue, rickets, nephrosis lead to a decrease in its level.

Color of urine

The color of urine can tell about the presence of diseases. It is dark yellow when dehydrated. Colorless urine in patients with diabetes mellitus, with kidney pathology. Black color is with melanoma. Urine may also be red. This is the case with the following diseases:

  • Glomerulonephritis;
  • The appearance of kidney stones;
  • Oncology of the bladder or kidney;
  • Hemoglobinuria;
  • Hemophilia;
  • Bruises of the lumbar region or genitals.

Dark urine happens with diseases:

  • Increase in the number of urochromates, which give a dark color as a result of dehydration;
  • Consumption of quinine, rifampicin, nitrofurantoin and metronidazole;
  • Additional or strengthened intake of vitamins C and B;
  • Cholelithiasis complicated by hepatitis;
  • Excess of the normal number of red blood cells;
  • Poisoning with mercury vapor;
  • Tyrosinemia;
  • Infection of the urinary tract;
  • Cancer of the urinary cavity;
  • Concrements in the gallbladder;
  • Kidney diseases, including kidney stones and cancers;
  • Hemochromatosis due to excess iron;
  • Polycystosis;
  • Cancer of the liver and pancreas;
  • Vaskulit;
  • Alcohol and viral hepatitis;
  • Glomerulonephritis;
  • Bile duct cancer;
  • Goodpasture's syndrome;
  • Dietary factors;
  • Schistosomiasis.

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