"Anarchy" is a term that in the minds of most people is synonymous with the concept of "chaos", "disorder". However, in sociology and political science this term has a slightly different meaning. In the article, we will take a closer look at the concept, origin, basic teachings and directions of anarchism. Let us examine in more detail such a direction as anarcho-capitalism. What is its essence and difference from other directions of anarchism? We will try to find out later in the article.
The concept of
Anarchism is a socio-political and socio-economic doctrine that denies the need for the existence of the state. The interests of small peasants and small businesses are opposed to the interests of large corporations.
There is a myth that anarchism is one of the directions of socialism. It developed in our minds after the revolution and civil war: for a long time the anarchists of Nestor Makhno were the faithful ally of the Bolsheviks in the territory of modern Ukraine.
However, this is absolutely wrong. Anarchism, and especially one of its directions - anarcho-capitalism, on the contrary, denies the creation of large public corporations. Socialism - as a preliminary stage of communism - though it presupposes the creation of a single just and equal society, but under the dominant role of the state, headed by "right people" - Bolsheviks, Socialist Revolutionaries, proletarians, etc. In fact, this trend also calls for the creation Corporations, only, unlike capitalism, with a single owner - the state.
The philosophical basis of anarchism is individualism, subjectivism, voluntarism.
To date, there are two major areas of anarchism:
Ideologically, these are absolutely two opposite directions. They are united by only one thing - the idea of rejecting the state. All other views are diametrically opposed. Anarcho-socialism, rather, refers to the left stream, along with communism, socialism, etc. Anarcho-individualism is rather a right-wing trend. Its principles were developed by Max Stirner, Henry David, Murray Rothbard, and others. Both blocks are also subdivided into different currents, each of which has its own views on certain processes.
Basic directions of individualism
Anarcho-individualism is divided into the following areas:
- Anarcho-capitalism. Here we will not detail it in detail, since this section will be devoted to most of our article.
- Anarcho-feminism. The movement originated in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. A vivid representative of it can be considered Emma Goldman - "red Emma". This woman immigrated from Russia before the revolution, and settled in the United States. Anarcho-feminists also opposed the state as an apparatus to impose traditionally established concepts of family relations, education and gender roles. Emma Goldman today would be an ardent human rights activist who would continue to fight for the equality of women, for the rights of sex minorities, etc. Marriage, she believed, is a normal economic contract between a man and a woman. And these views she brought down on mass consciousness through speeches, the publication of books a hundred years ago, when Western society retained its religiosity and traditionalism.
- Green anarchism - focuses attention on the problem of environmental protection.
- Anarcho-primitivism - call to abandon high technologies, which, in their opinion, only consolidate the position of those in power and exploitation. And etc.
The main directions of anarcho-socialism
Anarcho-socialism is a trend that calls for combating any form of exploitation, private property as the main cause of social stratification (stratification) of society into the rich and the poor. Such views were in the minds of the anarchists Nestor Makhno in times of revolution and civil war. The direction differs from classical Bolshevism only in that the latter called for the introduction of the dictatorship of the proletariat, that is, the actual creation of one class above the other. Anarcho-socialism denies the existence of any ruling class or class at all. Its main directions:
- Mutualism (muteualism). It is based on the principle of mutual assistance, freedom, voluntary contract. The founder of the direction is Pierre Joseph Proudhon, whose work appeared in the XVIII century even before the anarchic currents were finally formed.
- Anarcho-communism. Supporters of this trend believed that it was necessary to create self-governing communes, in which the collective use of means of production should be organized.
- Anarcho-collectivism or radical collectivism. Supporters of this trend called for a revolutionary way of overthrowing power. Unlike the previous trend, anarcho-collectivists believe that in the communities everyone should receive a fair fee, based on their merits. The banal "leveling", in their opinion, will lead to the creation of a mass of parasites who, like "parasites," will use someone else's labor.
- Anarcho-syndicalism. Focuses his attention on the labor movement. His supporters seek to abandon the system of wage labor and private property. In the means of production, they see the cause of the division of society into owners and wage workers. And etc.
Unfortunately, within the framework of one article it is difficult to briefly convey the main differences between the directions of anarchism. However, in a few words one can say that anarcho-capitalism is the opposite meaning to anarcho-socialism. The latter completely rejects any ideas of private property, capitalism, wage labor. The first, on the contrary, welcomes these ideas. More details about it will be discussed later in the article.
The origin of anarcho-capitalism
Anarcho-capitalist trend is also called "libertarian anarchism". The term was first introduced by Murray Rothbard. The emergence of this direction dates back to the sixties of the 20th century in the United States. Although its theoretical basis is rooted in the middle of the XIX century, to the works of market theorists, one of which was Gustav de Molinari.
Market anarchism - another name for anarcho-capitalism - is based on the belief in the free possession of private property. He denies the state as an institution of power, as it prevents the support of a competitive market. At one time the famous reformer - E. Gaidar - said: "The market will put everything in its place." Although the Russian prime minister was not a supporter of this philosophy, but in this his phrase one of the ideas of market anarchism is traced. The idea of free market relations, tied on a voluntary basis, is put in the forefront. It is this principle that will serve to the formation of a stable society, which itself can organize the rule of law, create an independent legislative base, protection and necessary infrastructure, organized through commercial competition.
Murray Rothbard himself realized that the state is, in modern terms, an organized criminal group that is actually engaged in robbery through taxes, fees, duties, licenses, etc. Almost all modern capitalist governments have turned into proteges of big financial tycoons. Capitalism, according to the theorist, is the predominance of small proprietors, and today we see that small businesses around the world are losing their positions in all economic sectors. Instead of thousands of small private entrepreneurs, we see one big tycoon who spreads his influence over many countries.
Therefore, modern libertarianism and anarchism have common goals with socialist and communist ideologies - they all call for breaking the existing system that has developed in the world.
Ideas of the future social order
This philosophical direction has many critics among economists, political scientists and sociologists. Even socialists and communists with the ideas of a "bright future," "social equality," "freedom," "brotherhood" do not call for a renunciation of the state as a regulator of social relations. The main theoretician of anarcho-capitalism, Murray Rothbard, on the contrary, called for completely abandoning him. How, then, should a capitalist society function in which private property must be sacredly guarded? To do this, it is necessary to create private security structures, which must act on a competitive basis. They should be financed not from taxes, but from private funds. Personal and economic activities should be regulated by natural laws, the market and through private law. Society, according to theorists of this philosophical direction, will soon understand on an intuitive level how it is necessary to live. People will refuse many crimes, since it is the state that is the root cause of their commission.
Is it realistic to realize the ideas of libertarianism?
Many people consider the ideas of libertarianism to be an absolute utopia. As the main argument they lead the fact that the nature of people is such that it is impossible to eradicate such human vices as envy, anger, betrayal, the desire to take advantage of someone else's labor, the desire to take possession of others' property, etc. Let us recall the psychological test: "If in a supermarket you see, That no one protects the products, what will you do? ". The correct answer to it will be the one that offers to steal food in the supermarket. Other answers are considered by psychologists to be dishonest, hiding the true essence of the subject. That is, the nature of a person can not be changed, so he himself, without the help of an external power regulator, will not learn to live "right." All ideas that are designed to change the nature of man through the creation of various social conditions are considered utopian. Therefore, market anarchism should be considered as such. However, some believe that libertarianism can be implemented. For this, certain conditions must arise. We will discuss them in more detail later.
Conditions for implementing the idea of market anarchism
So, in order to realize Murray Rothbard's ideas, the following conditions must come:
- Dominance of the power of ethics. In a society where everything is sold and everything is bought, it is difficult to educate a person in the spirit of "so impossible", "not good", etc. Today we see that the children of multimillionaires violate all laws: they do not comply with the high-speed regime on the roads, they can be insulted Representatives of law and order, neglect to speak about the country in which they live, etc. "Simple" citizens do not forgive such behavior: they, as a rule, receive the most severe punishment. Only where ethics and the value of freedom prevail over the ringing coin, it is possible to build an ideal society.
- Creation of several institutes. If the state is absent, then its functions should be performed by other social institutions. They must have the power and authority, otherwise they will be useless. The main condition - there must be several, otherwise instead of one form of state we will get another: theocracy, clan, wild capitalism, etc.
- A single value system. The libertarian system will function only if all members of society adhere to the idea of anarcho-capitalism. When a significant number of people appear, ignoring its principles and the power of institutions, the system will quickly collapse.
Symbols of anarcho-capitalism
We covered the theory of libertarianism. Let's say a little about the symbolism. The banner of anarcho-capitalism is considered a black and yellow flag. Black is the traditional symbol of anarchism. Yellow - symbolizes gold, a means of exchange on the market without state participation. The black-and-yellow flag is found in various variants. There is no strict arrangement of colors. Sometimes on it there are various images: a crown, a dollar sign, etc.
Anarcho-capitalism in Russia
In our country there are few people who adhere to the views of market anarchism. We, if there are followers of anarchism, it is rather supporters of anarcho-syndicalism, which create various youth subcultures. Sociologists note that modern neoanarchists, as a rule, do not understand the basic ideology of anarcho-syndicalism, they use only symbolism - red-black flags. At all events with their participation, as a rule, only anti-fascist slogans sound.
The purpose of neoanarchism in Russia
The modern neo-anarchic protest in Russia is perhaps the only non-partisan, principally street initiative that is beyond the control of the authorities. Its leaders believe that the goal of the movement is the struggle against fascism, as well as its primary cause - capitalism, which generates social inequality and migration in its present form.