Otitis in medicine is called ear inflammation. Since the ear has a complex structure, its various parts, from the outer to the inner one, can become inflamed. There is also acute otitis and chronic.
Inflammation of the external part of the ear
Inflammation of the external ear can be of two forms: local inflammation of the external ear (boil), and diffuse diffuse. Furuncle occurs as a result of infection of a hair bulb or sebaceous gland. The source of infection are most often staphylococci. Also, the development of limited inflammation is facilitated by injuries or scratches of the shell and auditory canal when picking with sharp objects, matches, hairpins, etc. Infectious persons are predisposed to those suffering from metabolic disorders, diabetes, reduced diet and hypovitaminosis. Inflammation can pass to the cartilaginous part of the shell or the fiber of the ear. Diffuse damage to the ear also develops due to the pathological action of the bacterial pathogen. The etiological agent can be a fungus. But this form of the disease is more often with chronic otitis. Diffuse external acute otitis can spread further and move to the membrane.
Symptoms of external otitis are pain in the auricle, which is strengthened by pressing on it. If the boil is large, then soreness can occur even with the slightest opening of the mouth or mimic movements. With diffuse inflammation, there may be purulent discharge. Hearing, as a rule, does not suffer.
In the treatment of external otitis use alcohol turundas, which are injected into the ear canal, physiotherapy procedures. With a strong inflammation appoint antibiotics. If the boil is limited, "ripe", it is opened surgically.
Acute suppurative otitis media
The defeat of the middle ear develops usually when the infection spreads through the auditory tube. Acute otitis media of the middle section can be a consequence of the presence of chronic inflammation in the ear, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx. The average otitis can be purulent or catarrhal. As a result of edema, an effusion (transudate) is formed. In children, this form of otitis occurs more often, since the tube is shorter.
The course of otitis has a stage. Distinguish the following stages: catarrhal or initial, the stage of perforation of the membrane and the stage of resolution of inflammation. The disease lasts for several days, sometimes lasts for weeks.
Acute otitis media of the middle ear in the initial stage is manifested by the appearance of pain in the ear, head and rise in temperature. Almost always the hearing decreases from the affected side. When examining the auditory canal, there is hyperemia and edema. The contours of the tympanic membrane are smoothed out, and when the process spreads, it swells. Further, a breakthrough occurs and pus flows out of the cavity. After the breakthrough of the membrane, the pain significantly decreases and the general condition improves, the temperature normalizes. In the next stage, there is a cessation of the discharge of pus, the perforation of the membrane becomes fused. There is a gradual recovery. A frequent complaint of the patient is a decrease in hearing. In the blood, in the midst of inflammation, the number of leukocytes increases and the ESR increases.
Acute otitis in young children may differ in its course. The picture of inflammation can go unnoticed, without visible manifestations. He is noticed only when there is a suppuration. The child is troubled at the same time, often cries and fits, poorly sucks his chest. Neurological symptoms and inflammatory diseases of the nasopharynx may join.
Treatment of purulent otitis media
It is necessary to prescribe antibiotics in the treatment, preferably a broad spectrum. At high temperature, antipyretics are shown. Locally appoint physiotherapy treatment. Before suppuration, the glycerol-alcohol drops are instilled in the ear, and when instinctively disconnected from the ear canal, the instillation is stopped. If the treatment is not effective, the tympanic membrane is punctured. With the resolution of inflammation and scarring, the opening for hearing restoration is performed by physiotherapy, blowing and special massage.