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Acrobatic exercise: species, classification. Acrobatic exercises in physical education classes

The term "acrobatics" is of Greek origin (translated roughly as "climbing up" or "walking on tiptoe"). This is a complex of various gymnastic exercises. Acrobat, according to the explanatory dictionary, is not only the one who is engaged in this sport, but in a more general sense - a very fast and clever person.

Modern acrobatics includes sports (primarily gymnastic) exercises - single and group, walking on a rope, etudes on a trapeze.

Who are acrobats?

Sometimes acrobatics are mistakenly identified with the circus genre, which is fundamentally wrong. Despite the many similar elements, it is still a separate art. For athletic acrobatics requires a good coordination of movements, the ability to concentrate, a sense of balance and considerable strength.

Often the word "acrobat" is used, emphasizing a high degree of sports training. Classes with this complex and effective art lead to a significant improvement in physical abilities - speed, agility, general endurance. Acrobatic exercises in gymnastics are used for special training and are the main component of free performances.

They represent themselves mainly movements with a coup over the head. Possible rotation around the longitudinal, transverse or anteroposterior axis, as well as their combination.

Classification of acrobatic exercises

There are three main groups. The first is acrobatic jumps: rolls, flips, coups. The second is balancing. This includes racks on the shoulders, on the shoulder blades, on the hands (including on one hand). Here - exercises in pairs and group. Usually acrobats are pyramids, the number of participants is from three people.

The third group includes jerk movements. What are they? The name speaks for itself - this is throwing a partner with a transition to the shoulder or hands (with a grip on the hip, shin, foot or hand) or landing.

Good preparation of this type is necessary when performing exercises on gymnastic equipment.

Acrobatics is also included in the middle school gymnastics program. In the lessons, children learn to perform somersaults, rolls, various racks, a bridge and much more. This allows them to better own and control their own body. Acrobatics helps physically develop and overcome fears, develops willpower.

Conditions and inventory

Training acrobatic exercises should be conducted in safe conditions in order to avoid injuries to athletes. Behind the seats, systematic control is necessary.

Acrobatic exercises in physical education classes in schools necessarily require the maintenance of equipment and equipment in good condition. This is an important condition for successful work.

Part of the elements (balance, twine and half-string) is mastered directly on the floor. To perform individual jumps, a springboard or a standard gymnastic bridge will do. Inventory before the exercise is checked for malfunctions and roughness. An obligatory condition for its use is an organized cleaning after the lesson.

Organization of training acrobatics at school

Acrobatic exercises in physical education classes in the school begin with a general construction and report of the attendant. The teacher explains the main task, checks the presence of the form, notes the missing.

Acrobatic exercises for children are contraindicated in cases of malaise, overwork or apathy. In such situations, the teacher should be able to understand the state of the student and, if necessary, temporarily remove from the class.

During the lesson, close attention should be paid to insurance, especially in risky elements. Already at the first lessons it is important to develop children's self-insurance skills, to teach orientation in space and exit from risky positions.

At the end of each lesson the construction is again conducted, the teacher announces the conclusions and remarks. Unorganized completion of the lesson is not allowed.

Now we will consider and systematize the types of acrobatic exercises.


This is the bent position of the body. When grouping, elbows are pressed against the trunk, knees are pulled to the shoulders, the brushes are wrapped around the shins. The back is rounded, the head on the chest, and the knees are slightly divorced.

The most typical groupings are on the back, sitting or in the squat. The main requirement for their mastering is the speed of action. So, from the bar with their arms raised, they quickly squat and group, from the position lying on their back they pass to the grouping with the back of the head and the like.


This acrobatic exercise is a rotational movement with the obligatory subsequent touch of the support. When rolling over, overturning is not performed. It can have an auxiliary character or be an independent exercise. Sometimes a roll is the link between the basic elements.

Rollback is done as follows: from the main rack are grouped and rolled back to the touch of the floor with the back of the head. While retaining the grouping, they return to their original position.

Another way

Option - taking the main rack, bend forward, hands behind the bottom. Leaning against the floor with straight legs, bend over, grasping his hands under his knees and rolling smoothly back, touching the tips of the floor socks behind his head. Then roll into the position of the sed.

When the rolls to the side, the body is removed from equilibrium on either side (right or left). The shoulder and forearm consistently touch the floor. The roll is carried out in the opposite direction, then the initial position is taken.

There can be a roll aside from the sed (the so-called steep roll) with legs together or apart. Another of its kind is a roll to the side bent (it is made from the position of lying on the stomach or back).

The necessary insurance at the same time - standing on the side, support the person performing the approach under the thigh with one hand, the other - under the shoulder.

Flip Flops

A somersault is an acrobatic exercise in the form of a rotational movement of the trunk with a turn over the head. Its feature - in a consistent touch of different parts of the body support.

A somersault may be in a grouping or bending over. The first is done, crouched down and leaning his hands on the floor. Strongly pushing his hands, you need to roll back and turn over your head, then return to the squat.

The somersault is bent - taking the main rack, lean forward, sit down, keeping your legs straight. The movement continues to roll backwards through the back. Then go to the main rack.

Insurance in this case is carried out, helping at the time of the coup with one hand on the shoulder, the second - under the back.

Harder to perform the same roll with a roll over his shoulder. It is carried out, as a rule, from the sitting room, with the legs connected and the arms spread apart on the sides, by rolling backwards.

When you touch the floor with the shoulder blades, you need to straighten up sharply, pointing your legs up. At the same time, turn your head sideways and lean your hand next to it. Roll over your chest, then through your stomach. Straighten your hands and then raise your head.

The trainer at the performance of the student stands on the side and insures the shins.

There is also a somersault backwards, performed over the shoulder.

Rollbacks are similarly divided into those that are bent over, in a grouping, so-called. Long with a jump or from a rack on his head - the latter option is more often studied by young men.


This is the name of the acrobatic exercise, in which the body assumes a vertical position with its feet upwards in the abutment. This is a kind of limited equilibrium. There can be different categories of difficulty. The emphasis is on the shoulders, shoulder blades, arms, head, etc.

The main option is a stand on the shoulder blades. Support at the same time - on the back of the head, neck, elbows and shoulder blades with back support. The coach at the same time insures the side of his leg.

The rack on the hands and head (at the same time) is made from the stop squatting or sitting on the heels, as well as from other positions.

The handstand is difficult to perform due to the need to balance, often accompanied by a fall back or forward. Balance is achieved by pressing your fingers or hands on the floor. It is possible to execute such a stand in a stroke or by pushing the legs.

When it is carried out, insurance is strictly required by holding the legs and legs with the leg and thigh. The person who performs during the fall should move his hands or lower his leg, so as not to hurt himself.

For babies

The method of teaching acrobatic exercises for schoolchildren from the first to the eleventh grade presupposes an account of the individual and age characteristics of children. The tasks and content of classes change as they grow and develop.

Acrobatic exercises for young children are not very difficult. In the first class they study the technique of groupings and rifts. To maintain interest in learning, you can invite children to picture a kolobok or any animal. Each exercise is fixed by repeated repetition.

Toddlers learn to roll back and forth, "bridges", stands on the shoulder blades.

For teenagers

In the fifth and eighth grades, the technique of acrobatic exercises becomes more complicated, which is associated with the improving physical abilities of students. The number of elements and their variety increases, additional movements are introduced, and the intensity of the load increases.

The complex of acrobatic exercises for children at this age includes several somersaults in succession with rolls, a rack on the head and hands, a half-string and a jump upwards with a deflection.

For high school students

Closer to the senior classes, the program for boys and girls begins to differ. Young men master the stand on their hands and other elements more complex in comparison with the tasks for girls.

The complex of acrobatic exercises for girls consists mainly of exercises for flexibility. They must "overpower", for example, a "bridge" with a lowering back, etc.

Acrobatics as a sport

Athletes-acrobats conduct competitions in single jumps (both men and women), in paired exercises (a pair of men or women or a mixed pair) and a group. At the competitions acrobats demonstrate combinations of jumps, as well as free exercises.

Groups of acrobats perform an artistic composition of throws, balance elements and jumps.

In gymnastics training, acrobatics has a big role. Jumping - the most difficult in the floor exercises, and many elements on the shells of gymnasts are similar to acrobatic.

Basic jumps in acrobatics

A coup is most often done with a running start after a jump in the swing of one of the legs and a jolt of another. The hands are straight at the same time. They put them on the floor as far as possible from the leg that serves as a joggle.

A jump jump begins with a take-off after a two-leg jump from one (the so-called swoop). At the same time, an energetic push is made at once with both feet, with movement of the trunk and hands under him, swinging with his feet and sudden braking.

Rondat - the so-called acrobatic exercise, which serves to transition from the take-off to the exercises backwards. The whole leap depends on the quality of its performance.

Turning a wheel has no phase of flight, unlike a jump. It is produced by rotating around an imaginary transverse axis with a swing with one foot and pushing the other.

The reverse is done in two stages: after a push and after a manual push. The duration and height of both phases are almost equal. Important is the rapid bending of the legs with subsequent braking before landing.

Other elements of acrobatics

There are other types of acrobatic exercises, one of which is a half-turn. Most of them are more complex than coups, only a few are quite simple and serve as auxiliary exercises.

Lifting the curve is done by vigorous swing with both feet, braking, pushing hands and landing on straight legs.

Courbet (jump from hand to foot), something like a coup back, or rather, its second half. By swinging one of the legs and pushing the other perform a handstand. Without completing it, you need to bend over, quickly bend your knees, and quickly unbend and slow them down.

Salto - the most spectacular, but also the most difficult of jumps in acrobatics. It is done by turning back, forward or sideways. It can be forward, flywheel - requiring special flexibility, and also rear from a place.

Back flips bent - a complex element, before learning it is necessary to master the group well. Its variant with a turn is done with additional rotation and straightening of the body.

Pirouette, or a flip with a full turn (360 degrees), exists in two versions. In the first of them, the rotation begins in the support position, in the other in the free (unsupported) stage.

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