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Why is it important to study natural complexes and save PC components?

Why is it important to study natural complexes (PCs)? The answer to this question can be short: to preserve the environment. The proposed article provides a detailed explanation of what types of PCs are, why it is important to know and preserve natural systems of different scale.

What is a natural complex?

The word "complex" in Latin means "communication, combination." This term is used by various sciences, including natural ones. A natural or geographical complex is any interconnected phenomena occurring in nature. It is not customary to equate a PC with a landscape, the first concept is much broader. For example, the natural complex is the forest edge, steppe or forest areas on the mainland, the entire geographical envelope.

The five main components of a PC

A natural complex is any combination in a certain territory of relief elements, rocks and soils, water and climatic factors with living organisms. Each PC necessarily consists of 5 interrelated components: climate, soil, water, plants and animals. Why is it important to study natural complexes, starting from preschool age? To understand and not to break the connections that form in the PC. Let us consider concrete examples of the mutual influence of the constituent parts of the natural complex.

Climate is the main component of zonal PCs

Climatic features depend on geographical location. In particular, the further the territory is located from the equator, the less solar heat gets. Forms PC arctic deserts or tundra. Significant insolation with a lack of moisture leads to the development of semi-deserts and deserts.

The climate influences the formation of a certain type of soil. For example, in the steppes, there is a warm and cold season of the year. Solar heat in summer is enough, but little moisture. Organic matter gradually decomposes with the formation of humus - a substance of black color, which gives dark shades to the most fertile soil - chernozem.

Why is it important to study natural complexes? Knowledge of the components of the PC allows you to understand how climate and soil affect the composition of plants and animals. So, grassy vegetation predominates in the steppes, there is not enough rainfall for trees and shrubs. But if the amount of moisture continues to decline, and human activities lead to the destruction of the soil, then desertification begins.

Types of natural complexes

PCs differ in size. So, a small pond, a glade in the forest or a ravine are natural complexes of lower rank. In the large continental spaces, the zonal natural complexes of the Earth-the natural zones (PZ) -are formed under the determining influence of the climate. These include tundra, forests, steppes and deserts. In addition to these basic zonal PCs, there are transitional ones that combine the signs of two neighboring natural complexes. Distribution of PP in the plains is subject to the law of latitudinal zoning.

In the mountains there is a change in PC with height (altitude zonality). If the mountain system is above 5000 m and is close to the equator, the belt set can include 5 to 7 zones (wet forests, savannas, mixed forests, mountain meadows, stony deserts, snow and glaciers).

What is a natural complex (territorial)? Historically, there was another type - azonal PCs. Isolated on the continents and in the oceans are natural territorial complexes (PTC). Leading role in the formation of a PC of this type is played by a lithogenic base (relief, geological structure, rock composition).

PTC - isolated in space systems, formed by interconnected components: the earth's crust, atmosphere, water, plants and animals. Large natural complexes - continents, geographical countries and regions, landscapes of the terrain, tracts. The largest and most important PC is the geographical envelope that connects the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and the biosphere into a single whole.

Why is it important to study the natural complexes of its land?

For all PCs, even the lowest rank, there are common patterns, for example, integrity, when a violation of one component leads to the destruction of the entire system. Looking around, observing the nature of the native land, you can give a lot of examples that illustrate this and other patterns. In nature, there are cycles of substances and energy. Components of inanimate nature, plants, animals and humans participate in these processes.

When planning any activities, it is necessary to consider the consequences to which it can lead. Therefore, before the construction of residential and production facilities, before the construction of roads, mining operations, ecological surveys are conducted . Experts find out how this or that kind of activity will affect the state of the environment. Knowledge of the components of the PC, their interrelationships allow not to damage the nature, save it for the next generations.

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