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What is the length of the rectum in children and adults? How does the rectum work and how does it work?

Knowledge of the structure, functionality of the rectum gives a person more opportunities to understand how the diseases of this organ are formed, and to learn ways to cure these ailments.

What is the rectum?

The rectum is a component of the gastrointestinal tract. The digestive tract combines the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine. The size is thin about five meters. It flows into the large intestine, the last part of which is the rectum. Its size is no more than one and a half meters.

The rectum, like the last part of the intestine, is in the lower pelvic region.

Its name was received due to the fact that it has minor bends.

The indicator of the capacity of the gastrointestinal tract is the rectum. Dimensions, its length vary throughout the life of a person.

In the process of removing the products of processing from the human body, the rectum has one of the main roles. It also performs an important function during the absorption of liquid.

On how the rectum works , the condition of internal organs and systems of the human body depends.

What is the length of the rectum?

This question can be answered only approximately. What is the length of the rectum in a person is determined by age. As you grow up, almost all organs grow. Based on this, you can only approximately answer the question - how long is the rectum. Scientists indicate only mean values. The length of the rectum of an adult is from thirteen to twenty-three centimeters. This is one eighth of the size of the lower intestine.

The length of the rectum of the newborn is small in proportion to the size of other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Physicians as well as adults know only approximate sizes. Fifty millimeters is the average length of the rectum. Representatives of both sexes of mankind have no significant differences in the amount.

Divisions of the rectum

In a detailed examination of the structure of the rectum of a person, three formations are conventionally distinguished:

  • Crotch. It has four boundaries. Also this department of the rectum is divided into two triangles. The first of these is genitourinary. Men have a canal for urination in it. In women, the vagina, respectively, joins the canal. In the anal triangle, regardless of gender, there is an anus.
  • Anus. This is the final part of the gastrointestinal tract and rectum, respectively. The aperture of the passage is visually similar to the slot leading to the channel. The appearance of the posterior opening in the male and female representatives is different. The male anus is like a funnel. A female - either completely flat and flat, or bulging forward.
  • Skin around the anus. It differs in color from the rest of the epidermis. Also around the anus, the skin is strongly wrinkled. The reason for this is the external sphincter. The back passage has a diameter of three to six centimeters, length - up to five. The anal opening and rectum have blood vessels and nerve endings, which allow you to regulate defecation (the process of excretion of feces) of the body.


The rectum is divided into two sphincters - involuntary and voluntary. The first is inside the body. It serves as a separator for the intermediate bend and the final part of the rectum. There is an involuntary sphincter of the musculature placed around the circle. Sizes range from one and a half to three and a half centimeters. In men, the involuntary sphincter is thicker than in the representatives of the beautiful half of humanity.

An arbitrary sphincter is located outside. He is under the control of man. The sphincter is a striated musculature, coming from the muscles of the perineum. Size - from twenty-five millimeters to fifty.

Features and length of the rectum in women

Comparing the anatomy of both sexes, colossal differences can not be detected. The length of the rectum in men and women is the same. The weak half of humanity, however, has a number of anatomical differences.

In the female body, the rectum is located in the immediate vicinity of the vagina, namely it is located in front of it. Of course, there is an interlayer between them. However, it is so thin that it can not withstand the migration of purulent and tumor processes from one organ to another.

In view of these female anatomical features, often representatives of the weaker sex suffer from rectal-vaginal fistulas. They are the result of injuries or strong gaps in the perineum at the time of the birth of the child.


The main function of the rectum is the elimination of waste products from the body. The process of defecation is regulated by human consciousness.

The next most important function, after excretion of stool, is the absorption of fluid. About four liters of water per day is returned to the human body during processing, pressing and dehydration of feces. In addition to water, the rectal mucosa absorbs minerals and trace elements and thus reverses them.

The human rectum also has a reservoir function. This is explained by the following: feces are collected in the ampulla of the gut. As a result, there is pressure on its walls. They stretch, give a nervous impulse, indicating the need for a bowel movement.

Due to its importance, the rectum must work normally. She is very sensitive to various kinds of painful sensations and conditions. For example, constipation provokes stasis stool. And this, in turn, leads to intoxication of the human body. Also, at the end of the fermentation of processed foods, relaxation of the intestine is possible.

The operation of the rectum

As already mentioned, the main task of the rectum is the excretion of stool, toxins and other harmful substances from the human body. From its correct operation depends the functionality of the entire digestive system. In the rectum, all unnecessary substances accumulate, and then are excreted.

In case of malfunctioning, all these wastes rot, gathering together and thereby poisoning the body. That is why it is extremely important to monitor the health of the rectum.

Conditionally, the operation of the rectum is divided into static and dynamic. The first is the accumulation, as well as the retention of stool and harmful substances. When excrement is collected in the gut, it becomes wider, the folds of the mucosa extend. Harmful substances, due to the anal press and tightly compressed walls, fill the entire length of the rectum. The photo above contains information on the direction of their removal. A spontaneous release of gases and waste of the intestine is prevented by the anal sphincter.

Dynamic work consists in deducing the accumulated harmful substances from the human body. The process of bowel movement is called defecation. The moment when it should occur is realized through nerve endings. It happens that a person has a urge to defecate, and the rectum is actually empty. Such situations occur when a person has disrupted the work of the gastrointestinal tract. In most cases, this indicates the occurrence or development of a variety of diseases.

Human bowel flaws

Unfortunately, the defects of the rectum develop before birth. Various factors can become the reasons, and there is no sense in listing them. Basically, two parts of the intestine are affected: the perineum and the anus. The most common defects are:

  • Stenosis (constriction).
  • Cloaca.
  • Atresia (infection).
  • Fistulas are chronic inflammatory processes.

Congenital malformations without fistula formation become visible after the birth of the baby, during the first day. The cause of this ailment is the small patency of the intestine. Symptoms of malformation are disregard for food, nausea, vomiting and overexcitation.

An infection of the anus is recognized by the doctor immediately after birth. However, for accurate diagnosis, examinations will be necessary. Often this vice is a consequence of the formation of fistulas on the perineum or in the genitourinary system. The main symptoms are the withdrawal of stool through the vagina. Already proceeding from the certain sizes, the doctor appoints methods of treatment. Diagnosis of the fistula is carried out using X-ray studies. This procedure is called "fistulography."

It is performed by an x-ray doctor together with a surgeon. A survey is conducted to report an allergic reaction to iodine. Before the procedure from the fistula with the syringe displays its contents. The fistula duct is washed. Then a catheter is inserted into the fistulous opening, through which a contrast agent (containing iodine) is introduced. The volume of the radiopaque liquid directly depends on the size of the fistula. It must be completely filled with contrast medium.

After the introduction, the fistula opening is closed with a gauze ball and sealed with a patch. X-rays are being taken. The radiopaque substance is eliminated, or it follows on its own. In some cases, the procedure is possible under anesthesia.

In cases of diagnosing nonspecific atresia, the child is immediately sent for surgery. In some situations, surgical intervention is postponed until the age of two. These include vaginal and vestibular fistulas. Before reaching the necessary age, the child eats in accordance with a special diet, which includes products that have a laxative effect. And the emptying of the intestine occurs through enemas.

Pathology in the form of narrowing of the rectum is diagnosed with the help of proctography and rectoscopy. In most cases, the treatment consists of nutrition according to diet and bougie. The latter is the introduction into the affected organ of a flexible or rigid rod for the purpose of stretching the intestine. The input tool increases in diameter every time. And thus, the rectum opening is gradually stretching. The number of procedures varies individually.

Pathology in the form of a congenital cloaca is affected only by girls. This defect is as follows: the urethra, the vagina and the entire length of the rectum are united in the common canal. In women, this pathology can be eliminated only through surgical intervention.

Based on many years of statistics, doctors are forced to agree with the fact - any damage to the intestine is vitally dangerous for the human body. Especially fraught with internal gaps. Only a timely appeal to a specialist will save lives and will not cause any inconvenience in the future.

Symptoms of rectum disease

Each disease has certain symptoms. But nevertheless, it is worth highlighting the frequently occurring signs.

If any of these symptoms occur, you should urgently contact a specialist:

  • Painful sensations in the anal canal.
  • Feeling of something foreign in the rectum.
  • Discharge from the rectum.
  • Bleeding.
  • Constipation.
  • Incontinence of stool and gases.
  • Itching of the anal opening.

It is worth noting that some diseases of the rectum have the property of developing at first time without any symptoms.

Diseases and their treatment

Diseases of the rectum are undoubtedly a very intimate question, which can only be discussed with a specialist or a close person. As stated earlier, not paying attention and enduring threatens not only complication, but also death. And in time the treatment started gives an excellent opportunity for a full recovery.

Common diseases of the rectum:

  • Proctitis is an inflammation of the rectal mucosa. Once the disease has arisen in the human body, then immediately there will be symptoms. Proctitis features include: diarrhea, pain, false urge to defecate, presence of mucus and blood veins in the stool. The reasons for the appearance of the disease are many. The treatment process is based on eliminating the symptoms of proctitis and the cause of its appearance.
  • Prolapse of the rectum. The disease is also known as the "hernia". It is in the exit of the rectum beyond the boundaries of the anus. In addition, its fixation is violated. Frequent prolapse of the rectum is accompanied by bleeding. Treatment - exclusively through surgery.
  • Anus fracture. Symptoms of the disease are cutting pain during bowel movements, meager bleeding after the defecation. To diagnose a crack of an anal aperture is quite possible at survey of a lumen of a rectum. If the disease has passed to a chronic stage, surgery will require surgical intervention.
  • Polyposis are non-cancerous formations located in the lumen of the rectum. The disease does not cause inconvenience to a person, and he simply does not notice it. Detects himself polypos after trauma or reaching a large size. This is expressed through anal bleeding. Treatment of polyps is an operational removal.
  • Koktsigodiniya - difficult to diagnose, because the pain in the rectum is not accompanied by visual evidence of its defeat. Activators of the disease - injuries and muscle spasms, causing the anus to climb up. During the treatment of cocciogeny, the patient feels psychologically uncomfortable, so it involves the presence of a psychotherapist, neurologist or neurosurgeon.
  • Hemorrhoids - varicose veins of the rectum, namely in the area of the anus. The two main symptoms of this rectum disease are bloody discharge and prolapse of the nodes from the anus. Also, in addition to the listed signs of hemorrhoids, there are feelings of gravity and the presence of a foreign body in the rectum, itching, burning and pain in the anus, painful defecation. Expanded parts of the veins prevent the normal excretion of stool, are injured, thrombosed.

Causes of the disease are various: laxatives, frequent use of enemas, oral contraceptives, excessive hygiene of the anus, unbalanced diet, anal sex, regular cycling, horses, motorcycle, pregnancy. Often, this disease affects people whose jobs involve sedentary work, for example, drivers, programmers.

Currently, the treatment of hemorrhoids has many ways. In each individual case, the specialist selects the necessary technique that will treat the disease, and also minimizes the pain and discomfort. However, it should be noted that rapid and painless healing is possible only in the early stages. Hemorrhoids have the ability to develop very quickly, and as a result, you will have to lie down on the operating table under the surgeon's knife. And then follow the strict rules of the postoperative period.

  • Paraproctitis is a purulent inflammatory process, formed on the cellulose surrounding the anal canal. The characteristic features of the disease are sharp pulsating pain sensations in the perineum, anal seals, local redness and fever. Treatment of this disease of the rectum is possible only with the help of a surgical procedure. And not in time carried out medical intervention threatens with the generalization of the disease and fever. Chronic paraproctitis is a fistula of the rectum, as the inflammatory process is accompanied by a fistula that breaks through the intestine or skin in the region of the anus. At this stage of the disease, healing is the treatment of the fistula in the acute stage and the surgical removal of it after the inflammatory processes become less active.
  • Cancer. The disease itself does not inspire hope, plus everything is extremely dangerous because of asymptomatic flow in the early stages. The first symptoms a person discovers at a time when the disease has already hit a considerable area. Symptoms of cancer are pain and a feeling of a foreign body in the anal canal. When these signs of disease are detected, only radical treatment is possible. Proceeding from this, do not neglect the minor inconveniences in the area of the anus or rectum. Do not hesitate and contact your doctor.

There is still a great many diseases of the rectum. They are much less common, but this does not mean that they are less dangerous.

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