The tax on personal income (or personal income tax) is a tax, the object of which is income of residents and non-residents of the Russian Federation. It should be recalled that residents of the Russian Federation are persons who are at least half of the year (183 days) in the territory of their country. Non-residents are persons whose sources of income are on the territory of the country.
Tax base for the calculation of personal income tax - any income taxpayer (in cash and in kind) and income in the form of material benefits. State benefits (except for sickness benefit payments), pensions, compensation payments within certain limits and some other types of income are not included in the tax base.
Such income is taxed at the minimum rate (13%). At the same time, the amount of the tax base for the reporting period (the reporting period is considered a calendar year) can be reduced by certain amounts, called tax deductions. The list of such deductions is approved by the Tax Code of the Russian Federation. The condition for granting each specific deduction is a documentary confirmation of the taxpayer's right to deduct. In this case, each deduction has a strictly defined deduction code, reflected in the certificate of the form 2-NDFL. Such certificate is submitted annually by the employer (tax agent) to the tax authorities for each of its employees at the end of the reporting period. If the taxpayer has income from several sources (from different tax agents), then he can use the tax deduction only from one of them at his choice.
Consider the main types of tax deductions.
Standard deductions are granted to certain categories of workers for each month, as well as to parents for children. The standard deduction (400 rubles) that was granted to employees not belonging to any preferential categories (code of deduction 103) was canceled in 2012. A deduction of 500 rubles is put monthly to Heroes of the USSR, RF, participants of the Great Patriotic War, blockade, disabled 1 and 2 groups and some other categories. In the amount of 3,000 rubles, the persons who have suffered radiation sickness in the event of an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, invalids of military operations and the Second World War, and others have the right.
Deductions for children are given to parents until the month in which the total annual income exceeds the amount of 280,000 rubles. Deductions are granted to all children from the moment of birth or adoption and until the end of the year of 18 years of age, and for children-students (graduate students, cadets) of day departments - up to 24 years.
Until 2011, the standard "child" deduction was 1000 rubles for each of the children, for children with disabilities or single parents it was provided in double size. Also, a double deduction could be used by any of the parents, if the second refused such a deduction.
Since 2011, the size of "child" deductions have become dependent on the number of children in the family. Since 2012, the amount of deduction for the first child (code of deduction 114) and for the second (code 115) is 1,400 rubles. On the third child, the deduction increases to 3,000 rubles. A child with a disability (deduction code 117) is also given 3000 rubles.
The right to property deductions is paid by taxpayers in the purchase of housing or new construction in the territory of the Russian Federation, as well as the amount of repaid interest on mortgage lending. The size of the deduction is limited to the maximum amount of 2,000,000 rubles, except for the amounts of mortgage interest.
Social tax deductions are given to employees for amounts spent on full-time education (one's own or children under 24 years of age), as well as for treatment (one's own, children, spouses, parents), provided that supporting documents are provided. Social deductions for training and treatment have a limit of 120,000 rubles, with expensive treatment the deduction is granted for the entire amount.
Professional deductions , the procedure for granting which is considered in the 221 Tax Code of the Russian Federation, can be used by individual entrepreneurs (for the amount of expenses incurred to carry out entrepreneurial activities). If such expenses can not be documented, the deduction is taken as 20% of the income received for the reporting period.
There are also deductions for the amounts received from the employer of gifts or material assistance. For example, the deduction code 501 means deduction of the total value of gifts received by an employee from an organization or an IP. Code 502 - deduction of monetary value of the prizes received at competitions and competitions. Deduction code 503 - deduction for the amount of material assistance that was provided by the employer to its employees (or former employees upon retirement).
Detailed information and the entire list of deduction codes can be found in the special code book.