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What is archaism? Examples of use in modern speech

Language never stands still. He, like a living organism, obeys the laws of tireless development. Some of its layers significantly change, some are replaced by new ones. Of course, the development of society (changing social structure, hierarchy) and progress in science and technology influence this process. It is not by chance that in connection with the development of the Internet and computerization, there is also a large number of new words entering the language - neologisms, sometimes barbarians (that is, tokens not yet fully developed, often differing in spelling). While obsolete words and concepts are a thing of the past. But they do not disappear completely, because this process is slow. And while people who know what it means, say, the word "Komsomol" or "rabfak", or works of art in which obsolete words are used (often requiring explanations for the modern reader in the form of comments, footnotes, supplements) live, they will not die at all . Outgoing tokens are usually divided into archaisms and historicisms. The latter are words denoting outdated phenomena and concepts, things. For example, "Armenian", "kaftan", "tarantas", "clerk" - there is no such kind of clothes, a vehicle, a post today. There are no serfs and boyars. Hence, these are historicisms. But then what is archaism? This is an out-of-use word that denotes an existing phenomenon, a concept, an object. "Lanita" - the same as the cheeks, "fingers" - fingers, "reveal" - neck. But we do not say so. To better understand what archaism is and what its role is in language and literature, we will analyze what kinds of it are.

For a number of words, neither the meaning nor the spelling has changed, but they are uttered differently in modern speech. For example, "music", "symbol." After all, in the 19th century the emphasis was not placed where it was now: they said "music", "symbol". These are phonetically obsolete words. And what is archaism semantic? This is a word that has one or more values that has become obsolete. For example, "not sparing his belly." It's not about a specific part of the body. Once this word meant "life." Or "scoundrel" - once this word was not a curse, a curse, but pointed to a person unfit for military service. That is, the word remains, but it is now used in a completely different context, with a different meaning.

What is archaism lexical or lexicon-word-formative? For example, who is the "thief" in the phraseology "aki th in the night"? Once this word meant "thief", now it is used only as part of this idiom, and that is extremely rare. Thieves exist, but the lexeme is obsolete. And here, for example, "friendship" instead of "friendship", "fish" instead of "fisherman" is quite understandable to us, because only the suffixes have changed. This lexicon-word-making archaisms are Russian. We understand that the "dol" is the "valley", "ask" - "ask", but comments are needed to such words as "food" (dishes, food) or "the other day" (on the eve). Nevertheless, archaisms, obsolete words (including historicisms), help the writer to recreate the color of the era. Thus, they play a stylistic role, especially if used in the speech or works of contemporaries. Often to understand what is archaism, the names help (for example, the program "The Other Day" or the word "estate" that is often used in the last few days), and phraseological units in which there are obsolete elements ("seven spades in the forehead" - from " Span "is a measure of length). To understand the meaning of such a name or idiom, we need to refer to a special dictionary (for example, obsolete words and expressions).

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