Malignant tumors are divided into two types: cancer and sarcoma. In the first variant, the epithelium of internal organs is affected, in the second - connective tissue. Sarcoma of the spine belongs to the category of oncological diseases. It is very rare and malignant. In addition, it is very difficult to diagnose and cure. This is due to the fact that in the early stages of virtually no symptoms. The tumor is usually located in a dangerous place, close to the internal organs. The disease is diagnosed by joint efforts of an oncologist, a surgeon and a specialist in neurosurgery. It should be noted that this education tends to increase in size, and in that case the probability of a lethal outcome is high.
Sarcoma of the spine: what kind of disease?
It must be said that this tumor can affect absolutely all connective tissue structures, that is, muscles, cartilage, bones. Oncology of this kind is most common among children. This is due to the fact that the child has a rapid growth of connective tissue composition. More often oncology men suffer.
Sarcoma of the spine is a malignant tumor that affects the connective tissues. This disease is characterized by rapid growth and progression. Sarcoma is by no means the most popular disease, but one of the most dangerous. This disease of the spine is the second most popular cause of death from malignant tumors (after cancer). This is due to the rapid development of the tumor, the early appearance of metastases, frequent relapses.
Classification of the disease
Sarcoma of the spine presses on the structure of the organ, as a result of which the movement of the cerebrospinal fluid is difficult. This disease is distinguished by one classification: depending on the place of origin of the tumor.
The following types of pathology are distinguished:
- Osteosarcoma, which is located on the spinal column. It is observed mainly in men, adolescents and children. It is characterized by spreading metastases to other organs. In the early stages, the patient feels dull pain, and many blame it for the consequences of a bruise or injury. However, as the tumor develops, the pain increases significantly, the skin in the lesion becomes thinner. The patient can not move normally, and the pain continues day and night, and no drugs help.
- Chondrosarcoma. This type of disease affects the cartilage of the spine. It is usually observed in men from 25 to 30 years. Chondrosarcoma begins to develop on the arcs of the vertebra, and then proceeds to tissues, ribs and cartilage.
- Fibrosarcoma. This disease is localized in the tendon area. As for the symptoms, there is one feature. In this disease, a node of blue-brown color forms in the lesion site, which hurts when you press it. The tumor is characterized by rapid growth, forming metastases. Often in the treatment of relapses.
- Plasmacytoma. This disease with the longest course, affects the vertebrae of a person. Most often observed in people over forty. The disease is difficult to detect. It appears as a pain between the shoulder blades. As the development of pain intensifies, the spine becomes brittle, prone to fractures.
- Sarcoma of Ewing's spine. The disease is a malignant tumor of the skeleton. Of all the above species is one of the most dangerous and common. In most cases, it is found in children.
Causes of the disease
The appearance of sarcoma of the spine is affected by a variety of factors: back injuries, ailments leading to the appearance of a malignant tumor, etc. Most scientists agree that the main reason lies in the genetic defect. Some experts believe that the sarcoma can appear according to the program of development of tumors in the body under the influence of provoking circumstances.
The main causes of spine sarcoma:
- Adverse effects of chemicals;
- Being under the sun for a long time;
- Trauma of the spine.
These factors give impetus to the formation of oncology. There is a malignant tumor on the spine, metastases germinate, forming sarcoma. It can appear on any site, and even inside the spine. Primary neoplasm appears due to genetic defects, and secondary - as a result of germination of metastases from other organs.
Symptoms of sarcoma
As already noted, this disease at the beginning of its development is almost asymptomatic. However, then, in the process of increasing the tumor, the disease affects other tissues. Symptoms and manifestations of the spine sarcoma depend on the location and nature of the lesion. Also an important factor is the age of the patient, the presence of diseases of other organs.
Depending on the situation, the symptoms in the neck, thoracic and lumbar regions are distinguished. Signs of sarcoma of the spine are divided into three groups:
- Radicular. These symptoms appear before others, the patient complains of pains resembling sciatica. And the unpleasant sensations can be of different nature: from acute attacks to constant stretching pain. In the lying position, feeling only increases, the patient feels burning and tingling in the limbs.
- Segmented. These signs are typical for those diseases that are localized in the spine itself. Malignant tumor restricts movement, possibly numbness of tissues.
- Conducting. One of the most unpleasant symptoms of the spine sarcoma, as it causes paresis and paralysis. The patient complains of a decrease in the sensitivity of the limbs.
Other symptoms of the disease
The three groups of sarcoma features described above are not the only ones in this disease. The main, the main symptom is pain. In the beginning, it appears at times, quickly rubbing, sometimes the body temperature rises. As sarcoma of the spine develops, the pain sensations become simply unbearable, they do not allow to fall asleep, no medications help.
When malignant formation increases in size, it presses on the spinal cord. As a result, urinary incontinence occurs. In addition, a person's gait changes, coordination of movements is disrupted, hematomas appear. It should be noted that this disease is inherent in all signs of cancer. For example, with sarcoma, a person grows thin, apathy, irritability and weakness appear. Sometimes the symptoms are manifested only by seals in the back area.
Several years ago in the media there was a message that the president of the Russian Federation had discovered a disease. Sarkom of the spine in Putin was suspected after the parade in Sevastopol on May 9, 2014. Journalists noted the changed gait of the country's first man, and also suggested that he wears a corset to support the spine or to hide the tumor. However, this information was not confirmed by the facts and remained just a guess.
As already noted, sarcoma is difficult to identify, for this several specialists unite their efforts. The final diagnosis is made, taking into account the patient's complaints, the history of his illnesses, the results of a general and neurological examination. Diagnosis of the spine sarcoma is carried out with the help of laboratory studies and various procedures. When carrying out X-rays in patients, a focus in the vertebra is revealed, which has a contour with uneven edges.
To suspect the presence of a tumor, a specialist can by appropriate signs: pain, impaired coordination, limited movement. Blood tests allow you to see violations, anemia occurs. If there are metastases, then the composition of urine changes. In order to accurately diagnose sarcoma, it is necessary to perform ultrasound, biopsy and histological analysis. Photo of the spine sarcoma is presented in the article.
After carrying out all necessary researches, several specialists diagnose and prescribe therapy.
There are not so many methods of treating this disease. It is recommended at the first detection of the disease to go to the oncology dispensary, and there to conduct therapy. If the diagnosis was made quickly, and the sarcoma has not yet increased in size, then radical surgical intervention is used. With its help an operation is carried out to remove the tumor and nearby tissues. If the focus of the lesion is the spinal cord, then it will be very difficult to eliminate education. Unfortunately, this disease is found, most often, in the late stages. Then the surgical intervention loses its relevance, this method is used only for palliative purposes.
Treatment of spinal sarcoma is recommended to be carried out with the help of chemotherapy. This method is prescribed for all patients, because with it you can reduce the size of the tumor, as well as stop the growth and spread of metastases. In most cases, the sarcoma of the spine leads to disability or death. At present, oncologists are trying to find an effective way to treat this disease, but so far their efforts have not been successful.
It recalls the situation with allegedly sarcoma of the spine in Putin. Despite the fact that the media claimed that the president is seriously ill, he remains at his post.
It is worth noting that there is no definite way to protect yourself from the appearance of a malignant tumor. However, timely access to a specialist and the passage of regular medical examinations, which reveal violations in the body, are excellent as prevention. The whole point is that the earlier the sarcoma of the spine or any other malignant tumor is detected, the higher the chances of a full recovery.
A few tips for preventing the disease:
- Lead a healthy lifestyle, choose the right diet;
- To abandon bad habits, including smoking and alcohol;
- Prevention of injuries and injuries.
The main thing is a healthy lifestyle and timely treatment of diseases and ailments. It should be said that there are so-called risk groups that are more prone to the occurrence of malignant tumors. These include people with adverse heredity, as well as those who are affected by radiation. Such patients should necessarily undergo a routine examination with an oncologist. When the first signs of sarcoma, namely painful sensations in the spine, appear, one should immediately consult a specialist. It should be remembered that it is easier to cure the incipient disease.
Prognosis of the spine sarcoma
To talk about the forecast, you need to analyze different factors. For example, a strong effect on the result is a type of malignant formation and its type. It is on them that the success of treatment and the possibility of recovery. The localization of the tumor also plays a big role. After all, if it is located in a safe place, and has not yet managed to grow to a huge size, you can apply surgical intervention, and completely get rid of the ailment. In addition, it is worth considering the age of the patient, the presence or absence of other diseases and metastasis.
All these factors indicate that the prognosis of sarcoma is individual for each patient. Even with a successful operation, one can not guarantee complete recovery. A huge role is played by the rehabilitation process, which lasts a long time. Moreover, the timely detection of malignant education and the use of effective treatment methods do not give confidence in a positive prognosis of the sarcoma.
In fact, survival, like the forecast, is due to the type of malignant tumor, its location, the characteristics of the patient's body and the chosen method of treatment. Thus, the survival rate for spinal sarcoma at 5 years is about 50%. Modern methods of treatment and radical surgical intervention does not guarantee a positive outcome. For example, if a patient has Ewing's sarcoma of the sacral spine, he will be waiting for the dispensary for the rest of his life.
Constant check-ups make it possible to notice the complications of the disease, to monitor its development. Due to this information the doctor can adjust the therapy during the course of treatment. Summarizing all of the above, we note that sarcoma of the spine is a malignant formation that affects connective tissue structures. This disease is very difficult to diagnose and cure. There are several types of such tumors, on the type and scale of development of which the type of therapy depends and the possibility of full recovery.
It is worth noting that this disease is rare. If it is detected and treated in a timely manner, there are high chances for a successful recovery.