HealthDiseases and Conditions

Lymphoproliferative diseases. Tumors of the lymphatic system

In the human body there are not only blood vessels, but also so-called "white" vessels. They were known for a long time, and in the middle of the 18th century knowledge about the lymphatic system became more extensive. Unfortunately, lymphoproliferative diseases are often found, and they can arise in any organ.

Lymphatic system

It performs a very important role in the functioning of man: thanks to the lymphatic system, the transportation of nutrients takes place, the extra interstitial fluid is removed. Another important feature is the provision of immunity. The fluid that performs these tasks is called lymph. It has a transparent color, the composition of the lymphocytes predominate. The smallest structural unit of the system is the capillaries. They pass into vessels, which are both internal and external. Their structure also includes valves, which prevent the reverse flow of liquid. The largest lymphatic vessels are collectors. It is in them that liquid accumulates from internal organs and other large parts of the body. Another component that the lymphatic system has (the photo is located below) is the nodes. These are round formations, which have a different diameter (from half a millimeter to 5 centimeters). They are located in groups in the way of blood vessels. The main function is the filtration of lymph. It is here that it is cleared of harmful microorganisms.

Lymphatic organs

Part of the human lymphatic system is also the following organs: tonsils, thymus gland (thymus), spleen, bone marrow. The lymphocytes that form in the thymus are called T-cells. Their feature is the continuous circulation between the lymph and blood. The particles that form in the bone marrow are called B cells. Both types after maturation are carried throughout the body. B cells remain in the lymphoid organs. At this their migration stops. In the abdominal cavity is located another large organ, which is an integral part of the lymphatic system, is the spleen. It consists of two parts, one of them (white pulp) generates antibodies.

Lymphoproliferative disease. What it is

The given group of diseases is basically lymphocyte growth. If the changes occur in the bone marrow, then the term "leukemia" is used. Tumors of the lymphatic system that arise in the tissue outside the bone marrow are called lymphomas. According to statistics, most often such diseases occur in older patients. In men, such a diagnosis is more common than in women. For this disease is characterized by a focus of cells, which eventually grows. Isolate a low, medium and high degree, which characterizes the malignancy of the process.

Possible causes of

Among the causes that can cause lymphoproliferative diseases, a certain group of viruses is isolated. Also, the heredity factor plays an important role. Diseases of the skin that last a considerable time (for example, psoriasis) can trigger the growth of malignant neoplasms. And, of course, radiation has a significant effect on this process. Radiation, some allergens, toxic substances activate the process of cell proliferation.

Lymphomas. Diagnostics

One of the varieties of malignant neoplasms of the lymphatic system is lymphoma. Symptoms in the initial stages may not be very pronounced.

There is an increase in lymph nodes that are not painful. Another bright sign is fatigue, and to a rather large extent. The patient may complain of excessive sweating at night, a significant and abrupt loss of body weight. It is also possible and itching, red spots. Body temperature sometimes rises, especially in the evenings. To guard such symptoms should then, if they do not disappear after a few weeks. For effective treatment it is very important to determine the type of lymphoma. When diagnosing, take into account the location, the appearance of the tumor, the type of protein that is on its surface. The specialist appoints a full medical examination, a blood test for cancer cells, and internal organs are diagnosed. For more information, a biopsy is necessary. Under the microscope, the affected cells have a specific appearance.

Treatment of lymphoma

The methods of treatment of this disease are as follows. Chemotherapy or radiotherapy (using X-rays) is used to kill tumors. A combination of drugs is used, they spread in the body and can also destroy those cells that failed to diagnose. After the chemotherapy, the bone marrow is affected, so a transplant may be needed. It is carried out both from the donor material and directly from the patient's own bone marrow (it is previously extracted before the procedures begin). Lymphoproliferative diseases respond to biological therapy, but it is mainly experimental. It is based on the use of substances that are synthesized from the patient's cells. To achieve a good result, you must carefully follow the instructions of the attending physician, take drugs on time, give proper attention to nutrition.

Leukemia. Clinical picture

The disease is characterized by a change in the hematopoietic cells, at which the healthy elements of the bone marrow are replaced by the affected ones. In the blood, the level of lymphocytes increases significantly. Depending on which cells have been regenerated, lymphocytic leukemia (changes in lymphocytes), myeloleukemia (myelocytes are affected) are isolated. Determine the type of disease can be under the microscope and the analysis of protein. Lymphoproliferative disease (what it is, was described above) has in this case two forms of percolation: chronic and acute. The latter is rather difficult. In this case, immediate treatment is needed, as the cells are immature and unable to perform their functions. Chronic form can last for many years.

Chronic lymphoproliferative diseases

Older people often diagnose chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The disease proceeds rather slowly, and only in the later stages there are disturbances in the process of blood formation. Symptoms include an increase in lymph nodes and spleen, frequent infectious diseases, weight loss, sweating. Often such lymphoproliferative diseases are discovered by chance.

There are three stages of the disease: A, B, C. At the first 1-2 lymph nodes are affected, at the second - 3 or more, but there is no anemia and thrombocytopenia. At the third state data are observed. In the early stages, specialists do not recommend taking therapy, as a person retains the habitual way of life. It is important to observe the regime of the day, the doctor can give advice on nutrition. General restorative therapy is performed. Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia must begin when signs of progression are found. It includes chemotherapy, radiation treatment, stem cell transplantation. With rapid organ growth, you may need to remove the spleen.

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