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International Technology Transfer

Transfer of technologies is one of the main elements of the process of using the country's scientific potential. Unfortunately, in recent years it is foreign companies that are finding new ways of developing qualitatively new products. The methods and forms described in the article refer to the legacy of the international community, but they have no restrictions on the application in Russia.

Innovations, innovations, inventions: what is the difference?

First of all, let's agree that innovation and innovation are one and the same. Most sources indicate that innovation is akin to innovation and is synonymous with innovation. At the same time, both of them are distinguished by the availability of additional value from the product, service, technology ... Often define innovation as an innovated innovation, that is, an invention or improvement applied in practice with a certain effect.

Thus, the invention, so that it becomes an innovation, must be implemented, applied in some branch of the economy. This process is called transfer or commercialization.

What is the essence of technology transfer?

The essence of the concept of "technology transfer" is the transfer of research results (invention) for some use. If the use implies an economic benefit for the owner of a new product or service being introduced into practice, this process is called commercialization. In this article we consider only the commercial introduction of innovations, therefore the concepts of transfer and commercialization in this context are synonymous.

Forms of capitalization of innovations may include contracts for the purchase of a patent, the creation of new companies or start-ups, and various technology transfer centers (innovation centers) are often used.

General principles of the commercialization of scientific discoveries

The commercialization of innovation is to give the product or technology the properties that will allow it to be used in practice with a commercial effect.

For many years science developed in our country - in different directions, under different leadership, carrying out various strategic tasks - but at all times special attention was paid to the application of the results of scientists' work in various branches of the economy. The transfer (commercialization) of technologies involves several stages:

  1. Identification of priority areas for a new product.
  2. Assessment of the market of priority areas of potential implementation.
  3. Calculation of economic efficiency of implementation.
  4. Study possible negative consequences from the commercialization of innovation.

Consider the most popular forms of technology transfer.


A patent is a document that certifies the exclusive right to the object in respect of which it is issued. In this case, the invention itself must meet three key requirements:

  • Novelty (has no taxes).
  • Resourcefulness (not obvious and required research activity to create).
  • Usefulness (can be applied in any branch of the national economy).

A special examination checks the object for compliance with these requirements and, in case of a favorable outcome, issues a certificate to the applicant.


Franchising is one of the most popular methods of spreading new technologies in the modern world. It is distinguished by the preservation by the company that buys the franchise, the brand and the overall business model. The main advantage of this method is that a ready-made business with effective management methods, product realization experience and image is acquired.

Nevertheless, the buyer remains dependent on the franchise owner. For example, suppliers are already identified by the technology owner for the user, new markets are often closed to the latter, regulatory requirements and internal documents are also not subject to change.

Joint venture

The introduction of innovation and technology transfer can also occur within the framework of a joint venture. Such an organization relies on an agreement between the two parties on joint business conduct. Risks and costs are divided into all participants of the enterprise, which increases the effectiveness of the spread of innovation.

However, the multidirectional interests of all beneficiaries can hamper the adoption of strategically important and urgent (operational) decisions. The distribution of profits is also difficult in such an enterprise due to the varying degrees of financial and managerial participation in the business.

A joint venture to introduce inventions into practice often includes foreign assets, which, as a rule, are responsible for the innovativeness of the technologies used, and new approaches to management. The domestic part of the founders in most cases is responsible for marketing the national market, analyzing the features of the conjuncture, local political risks. In this situation, the distribution of profits becomes a particularly complex process.

Direct technology acquisition

The simplest and most common method of introducing innovation into practice is the purchase of a product (technology). This method differs from franchising by the lack of commitment to the specific direction of use of the purchased technology, the use of a particular approach to management, brand, brand. At the same time, the buyer does not receive any skills in working with the new product / technology, and the implementation process often happens with a lot of errors and delays.

Foreign investments

Employees of foreign companies often visit developing countries in search of new markets and cheap labor. The country in this situation gets all the advantages from owning new technology and the opportunity for a new round of development of its research activities. In the country-receiver of innovation there are new jobs, here taxes are paid. Despite this, it is necessary to take into account the indulgences and benefits provided by the state to the foreign innovation corporation.

Innovative management

Transfer of technology can also occur through specific individuals who occupy certain positions in the top management of the company. To do this, usually hire a foreign leader, "entice" him from a developing innovative company. A patent for technology can reduce the effectiveness of this method to zero, but nevertheless it takes place to be quite often.

You can buy not only the manager, but the whole company. This leads to entry into new markets - thanks to the presence of a team capable of developing a qualitatively new product or service. Among the risks of this method is the overvalued selling price (due to the possession of a secret innovative product by the majority of its employees).

Centers for commercialization of inventions

Center for Technology Transfer - an organization that is focused on generating income from the use of research results conducted in state scientific organizations and private companies.

Such centers are often called start-ups - new small innovative enterprises, formed on the use of inventions and other innovations.

The main functions of such a center are:

  1. Technical (scientific) - assessment of scientific potential, conclusion of partnership agreements, support of links with innovation developers.
  2. Marketing research.
  3. Legal assistance to organizations that innovate.
  4. Project management.
  5. Administration;.
  6. Management of kadarms.

Stages of the Center for the Commercialization of Technologies

At the first stage of the center's creation, the strategy of the formed organization, its capabilities, risks, the main goal is determined.

The first stage involves the identification of several key aspects:

  • The strategic task of the center (for whom the organization works, what problems it intends to solve, how).
  • A significant environment (potential customers, partners, customers, opponents).
  • External obstacles (whether the economic and political conjuncture in the country / region contributes to the establishment and functioning of the center).
  • Internal potential capabilities of the organization (financial, material, human resources).

The answers to these questions form the basis of the business plan of the technology transfer center and fill in its main sections:

  • Business plan.
  • Marketing strategy.
  • Commercialization plan.
  • Plan for the development of human resources.
  • Training plan.

The second stage involves the formation of the organizational structure of the enterprise. At the same time, special attention should be paid to the different directions of interests of the participants in the innovation process and the presence of external factors. At the same stage, the market is analyzed, the founders, the clientele and the organizational and legal form of the center are determined (its capabilities in the political and economic system of the region).

Basic conditions for the formation of technology transfer centers

The Center for Technology Transfer can be established by any organization and individuals, but more often the ideologists of such enterprises are:

1. Research organizations (research institutes, universities) - performers of works.

2. Authorities (usually regional and local) - to promote the process of commercialization of technologies in the relevant region.

3. Private companies - business interests.

Market appraisal can be conducted in three directions:

  1. Regional direction.
  2. International level.
  3. Thematic concentration.

The transfer of technology is certainly the main task of any commercialization center, but they distinguish two main areas of activity of such organizations:

  1. Consulting - audit, patenting, business planning, marketing, investment management, etc.
  2. The creation and maintenance of high-tech business - the search for promising technologies, the implementation of unique products.

Transfer of innovative technologies can be carried out with the help of an organization or a center of any legal form: a subdivision of an existing organization, a consortium, a commercial or non-commercial legal entity, etc.

Development of technology transfer in Russia and abroad

The main conditions for commercialization are:

  • Reform and simplify the research sector of the economy in order to increase its dynamism and orientation to innovative needs.

At the moment, such a reform is taking place, ensuring the transfer of technology in Russia, which guarantees GDP growth and new solutions to problems and tasks in different spheres of the economy. At the same time, various research institutes are being closed down and merged, new innovation centers with specific functions are being created in the overall process of innovative development of the country.

  • Providing state-run research institutes and universities with new legal status.

This is one of the most important aspects of the functioning of the technology transfer system, which aims at implementing the tasks of introducing new developments into practice. To this end, at the moment, technology transfer networks are being created in Russia that allow for the cooperative implementation of a qualitative reconstruction of modern industry and other branches of the national economy.

  • Implementation of a system for the analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of research.

At the moment, there are many methods for assessing the effectiveness of innovation, based on economic approaches and mathematical modeling. At the same time, it is extremely difficult to take into account external factors affecting the industry in which it is intended to implement.

  • Stimulation of international scientific and technological cooperation.

The exchange of experience has always been welcomed in the development of knowledge-intensive industries. Today there are non-profit partnerships, associations and unions of scientists from different countries that not only implement the international transfer of technology, but also largely determine the course of development of world science.

  • Increasing the absorptive capacity for innovation in small and medium-sized companies.

The creation of innovations and introduction of innovations in private business is poorly developed due to the lack of sufficient information on the profitability of innovation, as well as lack of qualified consulting services.

In conclusion, it should be noted that international technology transfer methods combine already existing forms of business development, only taking into account the specifics of innovations.

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