ComputersInformation Technology

How did the computer technology develop?

Stages of development of computer technology can be conditionally divided into six periods, from zero to the fifth generation. Each of them includes one or another step in the development of architecture and computer functions. Few people know that the first computer technology appeared in the sixteenth century. The mechanical computer invented by Blaise Pascal could perform only the functions of addition and subtraction, but consisted exclusively of mechanical elements, gears and a manual drive. A little later, various modifications were invented (for three centuries), which could produce multiplication, division, and also save intermediate results, but in general the computer technology of that time was not widely popular and did not go beyond the level of a modern pocket calculator. This period is usually called the zero generation.

First generation

The development of computer technology went uphill at the beginning of the Second World War. This was primarily due to military needs, since German submarines, which sank so many British ships, sent encoded radio programs to each other and to shore. And even having managed to buy the coding device (ENIGMA), the British understood that the decoding of the radio programs should be almost instantaneous, which means that it is necessary to produce a huge amount of calculations very quickly. It was during this period that the first electronic computer Colossus appeared, which, however, remained a military secret for thirty years.

A distinctive feature of the first computers on an electrical basis was the use in their systems of a lamp processor with a binary reaction code ("zero phase", which became analogues of triggers "truth-lie"), which was a huge step forward.

The second generation

In 1956, physicists invented the first transistor, which was able not only to replace the lamp circuit of obsolete computers, but also make it ten times smaller and smaller! It was in this historical period that the first computers appeared , which to this day are called supercomputers and are used in various electronic archives, libraries and large analytical organizations.

The third generation

From this moment the computer technology developed very rapidly. Ten years later, the field of production of the first transistor computer was invented, assembled and included in the production of computers first integrated circuits, which for the first time allowed OEMs to think about starting to manufacture personal personal computers.

The fourth generation

Integral circuits were improved, by the end of the twentieth century it was more correct to call them already microcircuits because of the huge number of transistors (up to millions!) That they could accommodate. Super-large integrated circuits - this is what is still at home at home in the form of personal computers. In fact, this is the end of the development of computers, and computer technology is no longer minimized, but its improvement has not ended.

The fifth generation (invisible computers)

It is computers of this generation that we can see on the example of tablets, electronic books and other pocket computers. Initially, they were conceived as a way to make the computer as compact and convenient as possible, but did not get as widespread as usual, stationary PCs or laptops. But they have firmly taken their own niche in the market and are firmly holding on to their limited popularity for several decades.

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