Homo habilis (homo habilis) is a skillful person: a characteristic, tools

For scientists, a skilled man (Homo habilis) is one of the most ambiguous representatives of the human species. This is due to the fact that, even with multiple paleontological finds, they could not definitively determine its place on the evolutionary tree. And nevertheless for today its direct relationship to the person remains unchallenged.

An amazing find of the spouses Lika

Louis and Mary Leakey were anthropologists to the core. Their friends often joked about who they love more - science or each other. Indeed, the family of scientists spent all their time on the study of fossil remains and on the multiple archaeological excavations they carried out in all corners of the planet.

And in November 1960, they stumbled upon what will later become one of the most controversial discoveries of the 20th century. Being on excavations in the Olduvai gorge (Tanzania), the spouses dug up the well-preserved skeleton of the saber-toothed tiger. It would seem, what could be interesting in such a find? But no, next to it lay what made their heart beat a hundred times faster.

A couple of steps from the tiger, they saw the remains of an unknown science of hominid. Among them was a fragment of the skull, clavicle and part of the leg. After a thorough analysis of the bones, Leakey's spouses came to the conclusion that they had a child of 10-12 years old who died more than 2 million years ago, which, most likely, was the progenitor of the entire human race.

Homo habilis: characteristics of the species

The find of Louis and Mary was the first, but not the last. Soon other archaeologists also began digging out the remains of the Homo habilis. It is noteworthy that almost all the bones of hominid were found in the territory of South and East Africa. In this regard, scientists came to the conclusion that this species appeared precisely in these lands and migrated to other lands only at the decline of its existence.

Given the age of the found remains, it becomes clear that the first Homo habilis appeared about 2.5 million years ago. Its further evolution took no more than 600,000 years. But it's not that important. What is more curious is that this species already knew how to stand firmly on two legs, as evidenced by the toes combined together.

In the rest the homo habilis was more like a primate than a human. On average, its growth did not exceed 130 cm, and the weight should vary between 30-50 kg. Against the background of the body, long arms were prominent, which in the recent past helped the higher primates to climb trees. However, as the species developed, their upper limbs decreased, and the lower ones, on the contrary, became more muscular.

Family ties

For almost half a century there has been a heated debate about the role of Homo habilis in the universal spectacle of evolution. It is known only that it appeared at the decline of the existence of Australopithecus. Considering their numerous similarities, the scientists came to the conclusion that the man of skill became the next step of the extinct species. However, there are those who believe that these are two completely different hominids that have a common ancestor in the past.

No less controversial is the issue of the Homo habilis heritage. According to the generally accepted version, his successor was Homo erectus, the first straight descendant of a human being. The proof of this theory is the similarity of the found remains, as well as the time frames in which both species existed.

What changed the world

Despite all the controversies, one fact has always remained unchanged. On the day when the first homo habilis appeared, the world changed forever. The reason for this - a new skill that extols these hominids over other creatures, namely the ability to think logically.

Such changes have occurred because the brain of an able man has significantly increased in size in comparison with his ancestors. On average, it was about 500-700 cm³, which was quite impressive by the standards. In addition, its structure also changed: the occipital part responsible for the instincts decreased, and the frontal, temporal and parietal, on the contrary, was added in size.

But much more impressive discovery was that the brain of Homo habilis, it turns out, had the rudiments of Broca's center. And, as is known to science, it is this appendage that is responsible for the processing of speech. And, most likely, it was these hominids that first began to use combinations of sounds that later developed into a full-fledged language.

Lifestyle Features

Unlike their ancestors, Homo habilis rarely climbed a tree. Now the former "house" served only as a food source or a temporary resting place. The reason for this was the deformation of the hind limbs, which have adapted to long transitions on the ground, but because of this they lost their former grip. But as a safe haven, a skillful person began to use caves more and more often to protect him from bad weather and wild animals.

However, in one place the hominid tribe was rarely detained, especially if it consisted of many families. And all because our ancestors did not know how to grow food, and natural resources were exhausted too quickly. Therefore, they led a nomadic way of life, moving from one place to another.

Social structure

Scientists believe that the Homo Habilis tribe had a hierarchy and a distribution of responsibilities. In particular, men were engaged in hunting and fishing, and women collected berries and mushrooms. At the same time, the tribe shared all the products that were obtained equally among themselves, thereby caring for offspring and disabled individuals.

Also scientists tend to the fact that at the head of all men was one leader. Such a statement is based more on logic than on facts. But most experts adhere to it, since such a model of behavior is inherent in almost all the higher primates.

Tools of labor Homo habilis

This species is not for nothing called a skillful man. In truth, he was the first representative of the human race to learn how to use and make various tools. Naturally, their quality and diversity is very scarce, but the very fact of the existence of the craft is already a great achievement.

All the tools were made of stone or bones, sharpened on other objects. Most often archeologists came across scrapers and knives, which were clearly used for cutting meat. The use of such objects led to the fact that over the next 500 thousand years of evolution, the Homo habilis brush completely transformed into a palm that can hold objects tightly.

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