In the modern world, the republican form of state government is perhaps the most popular in the state structure of the countries of the world. But what exactly is she like? What kinds of republics are there? Let's try to understand.
Kinds of republics: an excursion into the history
The term itself comes from the Latin words res (business) and publica (general). I.e
In the Roman state, there was a so-called aristocratic republic, in which only aristocrats (patricians) ruled the ball. After the fall of ancient civilization and the formation of barbarian kingdoms, this form of government did not at all depart from the stage of history, although it was far removed from the feudal, and later - absolute
Different types of republics existed in Venice, Genoa, some Germanic lands. In Novgorod Rus, the boyars who signed an agreement with the princes had significant levers of power. Zaporozhye Sich is also often called the Cossack republic. However, a truly full-fledged revival of the republican form of government took place after the Renaissance.
Modern ideas were formed under the influence of the ideas of prominent enlighteners: Locke, Rousseau, Hobbes. An important place here was occupied by the idea of the so-called social contract, in which the idea was expressed that, once upon a time, people voluntarily renounced part of their rights in favor of state power. However, this implied the obligation of the state itself to the people and the latter's right to insurrection, if the power passes the legal framework. The nineteenth and twentieth centuries were the time of the fall of monarchist regimes and the establishment of a democratic system - first in European countries, and then throughout the world.
Modern Republic: concept, signs, types
In the modern world, this device assumes the following fundamental properties:
- The principle of separation of powers implies the creation of several branches of power (independent of each other and with different powers). This principle is necessary
As an additional measure of protection against the possible usurpation of power by one person or a group of like-minded people. Most often distinguish three branches: the legislative (parliament), the executive (the president and the cabinet) and the judiciary (in fact, the system of courts), but in some countries there are additional (supervisory, examination, etc.).
- Mandatory regular election of the highest authorities: the president and the parliament (in some cases the president can be elected indirectly, through the parliament).
- The supremacy of the Constitution in the legal system of the state. Legal responsibility before the law of representatives of authority.
The republics can be parliamentary and presidential, depending on the balance of powers between these institutions. For example, the US is a classic presidential one, where the initiative of forming a government belongs to the head of state. Different types of presidential republic are represented in many countries of Latin America and Africa. In Italy (and almost everywhere in Europe), on the contrary, the president himself is elected by the parliament, which means that the latter has more levers of influence.