Nutrition is one of the most important factors that ensure people's health. Food poisoning to this day remains an urgent problem. When buying food, you should feel confident that they are safe and healthy. HACCP helps with this task, which is a system that means "Risk Analysis and Critical Control Points".
What it is?
The abbreviation HACCP is English HACCP, which means Hazard and Critical Control Points. The system helps reduce the risks in food safety. Here possible malfunctions are defined and measures are developed that ensure that the product does not harm a person.
HACCP is the definition of responsibility for security decisions, the elimination of uncertainty, the achievement that the necessary decisions are made in a timely manner by those people who are competent in the relevant issues.
Since catering enterprises usually have a rather large assortment of dishes, then a lot of raw materials should be purchased for their preparation. This does not prevent the implementation of HACCP.
The appearance of the system
Initially, HACCP was developed at NASA to ensure the safety of astronauts nutrition at the microbiological level. The goal was to achieve their impeccable health. But at that time most systems controlled the final product. Experts realized that a 100% result is guaranteed in the event that all products are tested. Thus, HACCP arose, it is a system that reliably provides preventive control.
In the framework of the Customs Union, the Technical Regulations, called "On Food Safety", which proclaim the introduction and support of procedures based on HACCP principles at enterprises, are currently in force.
The program extends to catering organizations, where food is produced, stored, sold and transported.
The regulation was adopted at the end of 2011. However, to implement the necessary principles, organizations were given a period from 2013 to February 2015. Until now, not all enterprises have implemented this principle in practice. Such organizations face fines ranging in size from twenty thousand rubles to one million, and sometimes suspension of activities for up to three months.
HACCP in the public catering enterprise can be implemented in many ways. To do this, develop a system:
At the same time they are guided by the GOST R documents, as well as the relevant Technical Regulations of the Customs Union.
First, they are defined with one of two implementation options. For this it is necessary to get acquainted with the relevant requirements. And having solved this issue, they train employees, attracting outside organizations with experienced teachers.
So, we will study what is the development and implementation of the system consistently.
Step 1: Working Group
The group consists of two or more people who have the necessary knowledge about the production of products during the technological process. This is the leading link, managers, cooks, storekeepers, administrators of the administrative sector and so on.
The head instructs that the group be provided with all-round assistance. Its members may request assistance from outside experts. But you can not give full development to their hands, because only those who work in the organization understand the whole specifics of functioning. The group should know the following information:
- On the management and production of food products;
- About raw materials, ingredients and finished products;
- About general chemistry and microbiology;
- On equipment for environmental monitoring;
- On the principles of ISO 9001 and HACCP;
- On legislation in this area and requirements for food.
Step 2: product
The group is working on a description of raw materials and products. And the list is always up-to-date. Therefore, as necessary, it is changed.
Also assess the allergens included in the products. It is more convenient when describing the use of tables and specifications. Sometimes the latter are asked from suppliers, thus facilitating a control procedure.
Stage 3: scope of application
The following describes the norm when using the product. It is implemented on a take-out or on the spot.
They also describe the unintended or possible misuse and consequences of such abuse. Application:
- Includes the activities on which the system is based;
- Does not mislead and contains advertising;
- Describes all exceptions.
Step 4: Flowcharts
The block consists of a circuit with a consistent description of the technology that is needed for production. The flowchart should not be complicated. To its drawing, employees working in the field are attracted. A more modular approach to compilation becomes more expedient, as operations on technology have a complex character.
Dishes are divided into groups:
- Those that are subjected to heat treatment;
- Garnishes without its use;
- Dishes are complex.
They are also hot and cold, they give out bakery products, side dishes, drinks and so on.
Step 5: flow sheet, details
The group checks the flowchart before the hazard analysis begins. For example, they observe the process, coordinate the schemes with the performers, make sure that they are accurate and that nothing is left that could adversely affect the safety of food and people's health.
If necessary, the HACCP documents, namely the drawn up flowcharts, make changes.
Step 6 - Step 12: The HACCP Principles
We list the main principles.
- Hazard Analysis.
- Determination of critical control points.
- Establishment of critical limits for each of them.
- Installation of the monitoring system for each of them.
- Establishment of corrective actions.
- Establishment of verification procedures.
- Maintenance of documentation and accounting.
At all enterprises, the hazards are of an individual nature. When they are identified, precautionary measures are developed. Risk factors are divided into the following varieties:
- Biological - is the presence of pathogenic microorganisms that can infect or lead to intoxication;
- Physical - the presence of foreign bodies, which can lead to injury or cause dislike;
- Chemical - these include allergens, toxic substances, antibiotics, pesticides, packaging, lubricants and medicines.
After monitoring, each of the hazards is described, analyzed and evaluated.
CCP (critical control point) refers to the stage of the process when the control procedure is used, preventing, eliminating and reducing risks. Typical CCPs include:
- Heat treatment;
- Processing (eggs).
After determining the CCT is dealt with critical limits. They are different from technological, because the purpose of the latter is not security. Critical limits are time, temperature, salt and so on.
Further, monitoring activities are carried out to confirm the fact that the CCP is controlled. They are continuous and periodic. Regularity depends on the type and nature of the procedure.
If there are deviations from the critical limits, a correction is made, which after development is included in the plan. At the same time, it is necessary to indicate what concrete measures to take if deviations from the norm occur.
Verification procedures include other methods, such as tests, tests, and so on.
The latter principle includes HACCP requirements for the availability of documentation and archiving system. This becomes a proof of the functionality of the system. The documentation should be arranged in such a way that, if necessary, it is possible to easily find the necessary information.
Step 13: Leadership
This body performs the following.
- Shows the priority of HACCP for product safety.
- Informs employees about the fulfillment of the requirement regarding this issue.
- Approves the appropriate policy.
- Provides resources.
Step 14: Preliminary Activities
Both the food safety management system and the preliminary measures are very important. These include the following.
- Conducting activities in accordance with the law.
- Execution of proper requirements.
- Control of risk zones.
- Selection of suppliers.
- Safety of raw materials and water.
- Control of production.
- Checking the performance of the hygienic program.
- Pest control.
- Employee training.
- Identification and tracking of products.
- Monitoring of the external environment.
- Other activities.
Step 15: Documents
Before the certification system is implemented, the following documents are developed.
- Guide to safety and quality.
- Production schemes and stages.
- Records management.
- Control over raw materials.
- Management of products not corresponding in quality.
- Emergency management.
- Withdrawal of products.
- Audit management.
- Rules of personal hygiene.
- Rules for the control of pests.
- Waste management rules.
- Rules for restricting access.
- Rules for disinfection and cleaning of premises.
- Analysis from management.
- Other documents.
At present, this procedure is voluntary. Such a character is inherent, for example, to the well-known international standard ISO 9001. However, in the case of HACCP, the norms are more specific. Let's dwell on how the system of management certification is conducted.
- The specialists of the enterprise send the corresponding application.
- The certification body examines it and, as a result, prepares the contract.
- A commission is appointed for the procedure.
- She analyzes the documentation submitted with the application.
- Then they conduct an audit. This is done directly on the spot, and its plan is preliminary agreed upon by the parties.
- If non-conformities are identified, corrections are developed for them and the reasons for their appearance are analyzed. Depending on the nature of the discrepancies, a decision is made whether to issue or not to issue the document.
If a positive decision is taken, the company receives a HACCP certificate, and then it has the right to use the conformity sign, as well as the banner on the site for advertising.