In life, there are different situations, when the surrounding or close people need first aid. This and getting into an accident, and frostbite, and electric shocks. A common problem is burns. This term refers to tissue damage caused by thermal, electrical, chemical or radiation energy. Today, we will look at the damage caused by aggressive substances, and first aid for chemical burns.
Need for first aid
Everyone should know about how first aid is provided. This topic is very urgent, because anyone can be in trouble. The following classification serves as a confirmation. People affected by burns are divided into several groups:
- Persons affected by their own negligence, inattention;
- Victims of accidents;
- People affected by the actions of criminals;
- Employees of rescue services.
First aid for chemical burns of the skin and mucous membranes is very important. The earlier it turns out, the faster the further impact of traumatic factors stops. Due to first aid, severe consequences and even death are prevented.
General information on chemical burns
Chemical burns appear due to the negative impact on the skin or mucous membranes of aggressive substances. Allocate the following degrees of damage:
- I degree - the affected area becomes pripushim, redness of the skin is observed;
- II degree - the upper layers of the dermis perish on the damaged and reddened skin (with a thermochemical burn, bubbles arise that contain a yellowish liquid);
- III degree - tissue necrosis begins on the affected area, which is manifested by a change in skin color;
- IV degree - the deep tissues (subcutaneous fatty tissue, muscles, bones) are affected.
Chemical burns: statistics and severity of lesions
Before considering first aid for chemical burns, it is worth noting that lesions most often occur in people through their own fault. Incorrect use of various substances at home, neglect of safety rules at work are the main reasons. Statistics show that chemical burns are more likely to occur due to the effects of acids (in 43% of cases). Much less lesions of the skin and mucous membranes occur due to the influence of alkalis (in 21.5% of cases).
The severity of chemical burns is determined not by the influence of an external factor, but by physicochemical changes occurring in the area of trauma. Substances falling on the body or mucous membranes, destroy the tissues until they are neutralized or diluted and removed. The severity of damage is determined by several factors:
- The nature of the chemical;
- Duration of contact;
- Concentration and volume of matter;
- Mechanism of action;
- Degree of penetration into tissues;
- Whether the first medical aid was provided in the time of chemical burns, the removal of clothes impregnated with aggressive substance.
General algorithm of rendering medical aid
Having seen a person who suffered from a chemical burn, an ambulance crew should be called immediately, because only when in a medical institution it is possible to effectively treat and quickly restore. Then you should examine the scene of the incident in order to understand if it is dangerous to be here. If there is a threat to life, then you need to call rescuers and other emergency services.
If there is no risk to life, you can approach the victim and provide first aid for chemical burns. If necessary, it is recommended to use personal protective equipment - masks, gloves. The victim first needs to remove chemicals soaked in chemicals. This should be done carefully to prevent damage to other parts of the body.
Further assistance depending on the substance
A person who does not have medical education is not obliged to provide medical assistance. That is why, in some cases, you can refuse to perform any measures. For example, if you do not know the substance that caused the burn, then it's best to wait for the arrival of specialists. The first medical aid depends on the cause of chemical damage.
However, not always the ambulance team comes quickly to the challenge. In order not to miss valuable time in the event of a dangerous situation, it is recommended that you familiarize yourself with the rules of assistance in advance. They are listed in the table below.
|The chemical that caused the burn
|Follow-up general measures
|Acids and alkalis
Rinse the burn surface with running water.
Some features of first aid
The chemical is more efficiently removed under a strong stream of water. However, this process is not fast. Chemical burns are washed for a long time:
- When affected by acids, this process is required for 30 to 60 minutes;
- When exposed to alkalis - a few hours.
Wounds are rinsed until the feeling of burning and pain is reduced. If the chemical substance is powdery, then it is first shaken off, and then the surface of the skin is treated with a suitable agent.
Chemical Eye Burn: First Aid
Eyes - an important organ of perception of the surrounding world. Without them, it is impossible to fully exist. That's why with chemical eye burns, you need to provide first aid as quickly as possible to maintain your eyesight. In case of acid or alkali, the following actions are recommended:
- Gently push the eyelids apart with your fingers and wash your eyes with plenty of cold and clear water. When washed, it should drain from the nose to the temple.
- Apply a bandage over your eyes. They should both be closed so that the movements of the healthy eye do not cause unpleasant sensations in the area of the affected eye.
- After providing first aid to the injured person with a bandage before your eyes, you need to bring it to a medical facility for further treatment.
When the first medical aid is provided for burns with chemicals, the affected eyes are washed not only with water. If acid is ingested, a 2% solution of baking soda is sometimes used. To make it, take a glass of boiled water and add baking soda to the tip of the table knife.
When alkali is ingested, the eyes are washed with a 0.1% solution of citric acid. To prepare such a liquid, a couple drops of lemon juice are added to a glass of boiled water.
Common mistakes made
When providing first aid, people often make mistakes. They try to remove the chemical substance with the help of napkins, tampons moistened with water. Use these tools for burns can not. Napkins and swabs do not remove the substance, but rubbed into the deeper layers of the skin.
Very often people treat affected areas with fat, egg yolk, dairy products, urine, washed with decoctions of medicinal plants. Experts, knowing this, recommend people not to use traditional medicine. The first medical aid for chemical burns, rendered using the above products, can lead to infection of the burn wound. Infection eventually can cause death.
Importance of visiting a medical facility
A person injured by chemical burns must be brought to the hospital. The need for treatment in a hospital is primarily due to the fact that aggressive substances through the skin, wound surface, mucous membranes penetrate the bloodstream and spread throughout the body, disrupting its work. For example, by inhalation of certain concentrations of ammonia, hydrogen fluoride, bromine vapors, strong acids and other similar substances, eye, mucous membranes of the larynx, nasopharynx, hoarseness, pain in the throat, nosebleeds are observed. Possible swelling of the larynx and lungs, which is very dangerous.
The listed consequences are not the only ones. With the absorption of oxalic acid or hydrofluoric acid, the risk of hypocalcemia is high. If ingested tannic, formic or picric acid, phosphorus or phenol, hepatic and renal insufficiency, depression of the central nervous system may occur.
Treatment of chemical burns in the hospital
The scheme of treatment after the first aid provided for chemical burns includes several components. It includes the elimination of the toxic effects of corrosive substances. For this:
- Methods of accelerated elimination of poisonous substances from the human body;
- Specific (antidote) therapy is used;
- Therapeutic measures are carried out aimed at maintaining and restoring the disturbed functions of the body.
Treatment of the burn surfaces themselves is determined taking into account the degree of injury. At I and II degree ointment dressings are used. Medical workers use such drugs that contribute to the acceleration of tissue regeneration. If there are suppuration, then instead of ointments use bandages moistened with solutions of antiseptics. With deep burns, surgical treatment is used. First, necroctomy is performed, during which the dead tissue is removed. After the skin is defective.
Chemical burns are quite dangerous. Do not rely on traditional medicine or on the fact that everything will heal itself. To a specialist, in any case, it is worth applying after the first aid provided for chemical burns. He will send for treatment in the hospital or say that it can be used for recovery with minor skin lesions.