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Category of pipelines. Definition of the pipeline category. Classification of pipelines by categories and groups

Modern industry can not do without such a means of transportation as the pipeline. With its help, a fairly large distance is carried by liquids and gases. In order for the pipeline to last a long time, it is made taking into account the properties of the materials for which they are intended. Therefore, today there is a large number of technological, backbone and other communications for a variety of substances.

This is a relatively inexpensive mode of transportation. How it functions, how the process is organized, will help understand the existing categories of pipelines. There are several different signs of classification. This allows you to use and maintain communications as efficiently as possible.

Purpose of the pipeline

The correct definition of the pipeline category is necessary both in the production process and in the field. Depending on the type and conditions of transportation, there is a greater or lesser danger in performing maintenance. Bulk, liquid or gaseous products can be passed along the main line.

The range of applications is great. Pipelines can be operated to transfer fuel (oil, mazut, gas), chemical reagents (oxygen, acetylene, alkali, ammonia). Also, with the help of the presented communications, they can transport oil and water. This system is necessary for both housewives and huge industrial enterprises.

Substances can be hot or cold. The transmission pressure may be negligible or very high. Depending on the type of use of the system, materials for the manufacture and connection of pipes are selected, and a certain marking is used.


Classification of pipelines by categories and groups is carried out on different grounds. Material for the manufacture of the elements of the system can be steel, non-ferrous metals, synthetic substances. Each of them has its own characteristics.

Metals are well welded in the field. Therefore, the maintenance of such a system is simple and qualitative. The thickness of the wall of pipes and joints should be minimal to withstand the load. Therefore, the production of pipes is constantly improving.

To the material put forward increased requirements. Today, pipes are made of steel, artificial materials. The choice depends on the purpose of the system. Steel can be structural, alloyed and carbon. In some cases, non-ferrous metals are used.

The surface of the products can have a special spraying. But over time, artificial materials are increasingly being used. These are polypropylene pipes. They are easy to install, durable.

Characteristics of classification

There are different categories and groups of pipelines. There are many classification characteristics. In addition to the difference in materials, the pipelines differ in diameter, ability to withstand pressure, and exposure to corrosive substances. There is a separation of systems in accordance with the temperature load.

Also, the pipelines differ in location, as well as in scale. Systems can run on the surface or underground, in water. The scale distinguishes between technological, main, communal and engine (ship) pipelines.

When creating and maintaining, the surrounding communication conditions are taken into account. Each category or group requires an understanding of its characteristics. This allows you to correctly assess the organization of the presented communications, as well as the conditions for their operation.

Classification of main pipelines

Trunk pipelines are designed to transport various types of fuel for quite long distances. For their manufacture, only metal assembled by a welded method is used. On the pipes there is either a straight line or a spiral seam.

On the basis of susceptibility to pressure, there are 2 categories of main pipelines. Exceed the specified level is strictly prohibited. I category of pipes withstand pressure 2.5-10 MPa, and II category - 1.2-2.5 MPa.

Depending on the diameter, there are 4 categories of highways. I include pipes with a cross-sectional dimension of 1-1.2 m. These are the largest products. Categories II correspond to pipes with a diameter of 0.5-1 m. Then come the most subtle varieties. By the third category belong products 0.3-0.5 m, and to IV - less than 0.3 m. These are the main signs of the classification of trunk pipes.

Technological pipelines

Technological varieties of communications are used in production conditions. Through this transport system, raw materials, fuel for processing are transferred, as well as spent waste.

Virtually any branch of the national economy can not do without such systems. The categories of technological pipelines are classified, in addition to the diameter and pressure, for a number of features.

The location distinguishes between internal and interchain varieties. Also very important factor is resistance to heat, aggressive environment. During the execution of various technological cycles, communications are subjected to various loads.

Classification of technological pipes

Technological pipelines are grouped according to a number of important features. By the method of placement, there are ground, underground and aboveground species. But more carefully in the manufacture and selection of the elements of the system refer to the strength characteristics.

The categories and groups of process pipelines are separated by the pressure inside the system, as well as the temperature of the transported substance. In the first case, systems are non-pressure, vacuum, as well as low, medium or high pressure.

According to the principle of operating temperature, there are cold, normal, or hot pipelines. There are also products designed for very strong heating of the transported substance.

Features of process pipes

The existing classification of pipelines by categories takes into account the peculiarities of this type of system. Communications of industrial transportation are grouped according to the aggressiveness of the internal environment. There are pipes for non-aggressive, weak, medium and highly aggressive substances. In production, most often various non-metallic materials are used to create a system. The most famous of them is polypropylene.

A characteristic feature of this group of materials is a long service life, as well as ease of assembly and maintenance. However, the effectiveness of using such materials depends on the choice of products in accordance with operating conditions. For each technological process , special categories of pipelines have been developed.

Household pipelines

Considering existing categories of pipelines, attention should be paid to household systems. Their main purpose is to transport liquids or gases through heating systems, life support. They are also supplied with cold, hot water, steam, gas, chemical reagents for servicing boiler equipment, etc. Alkali, acids, oil, oil products can pass through such pipelines.

Indicators of pressure, temperature, aggressiveness of the environment are necessarily taken into account in the production of each category of products. And taking into account the maximum possible values of these indicators.

Marking of pipelines

To avoid the question of how to determine the category of the pipeline during operation, a special marking is used. This allows the repair and maintenance staff to assess the correctness of any impact on communication.

Detailed information about the system can be provided only by the accompanying documentation of the manufacturer, putting the equipment into operation. But the basic rules for pipeline marking are successfully applied at all sites. This allows in general terms to determine which category the pipeline belongs to.

Yellow color gas mains. Red marking is allocated to the pipes through which steam is passed. If there is liquid in the system, the system is painted green. For technical water also uses its own marking. It's black. Even visually you can determine which substance is transported by the system.

Degree of danger

Considering the categories of pipelines, it is necessary to pay attention to their degree of danger. It depends on the temperature, pressure and characteristics of the substance being transported. Also taken into account remoteness from settlements and the type of location of the system.

According to these data, there are 5 categories of the degree of danger: B, I, II, III, IV (represented in a decreasing sequence by threat level). This indicator is taken into account during the operation and repair of the system.

The operating personnel undertakes a number of actions provided by the instructions for the repair of communications. Otherwise, an accident or even a major disaster can occur.


The pipe joints are subjected to a heavy load both from the external and internal environment. Therefore, they are considered a weak point of any system. When studying the categories of pipelines, it is necessary to assess the locations of their connections.

Depending on the type, scale of communications, these or other types of joints perform. For main types, they are performed by welding, and for technological varieties, it is permissible to solder the parts.

For household pipelines, seals are required (depending on the type of material and technical characteristics). They are also chosen in accordance with operating conditions. In order for joints to be of good quality, the ends of the pipes must be even, the diameter is maintained with precision.

When manufacturing pipeline parts, it is important to produce products of sufficient strength with minimal material consumption. The number of connections is reduced as much as possible. This allows you to create a solid, durable system.

Correctly choosing the categories of pipelines, you can create efficient and practical transport communications. Possessing information about the group, the characteristics of the main lines, it will be possible to perform repair of the system elements qualitatively and safely. Therefore, installation and service organizations should consider the categories of each pipeline in their area of competence.

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