Buinichskoe field - a memorial complex. Defense of Mogilev

It can be said that the Soviet Union entered World War II, to put it mildly, unsuccessfully. The oncoming German forces literally swept away the sluggish, poorly organized resistance on their way. A devastating blow fell on the BSSR: the history of Belarus began to be replenished with tragic pages from the very first days of the war.

Panic organized retreat

Now the idea has spread that the USSR was preparing itself to attack fascist Germany. In some quarters it causes a certain skepticism: after the declaration of the war the Red Army showed very weak fighting efficiency. What can I say, if a week later the hostilities began, the enemy has already taken Minsk?

The circumstances of the seizure of the capital of the republic do not honor the Soviet strategists: within a short time they were surrounded and 23 divisions of the Western Front were defeated. In the captivity was 324 thousand people, and more than 300 thousand were killed: the history of Belarus hitherto did not know such a huge defeat.

Intimidation for raising morale

Comrade Stalin reacted to what had happened in his own manner, stating at the meeting of the Politburo about the ruined (if expressed censorship) Leninist legacy. And on July 22, the commander of the Western Front Pavlov and six other generals involved in the defense of the capital of Belarus were arrested and shot for treason. Major-General Kopets preferred not to wait for the inevitable terrible fate and shot himself, after learning about the losses incurred by aviation on the first day of the war.

Such measures did not help much. After an extremely painful defeat, the Red Army was demoralized, unable to provide qualitative resistance. Fascists almost unhamperedly moved inland, the surrender of Mogilev seemed inevitable.

Readiness for defense

Preparation for the defense of the city was feverish. On July 5, General Bakunin assumed command of the 61st Corps, whose tasks included the defense of Mogilev. On the same day, the corps divisions took part in the battles.

In the city itself formed the militia. On July 10 they already numbered about 12 thousand people. Within a matter of days, a great deal of work was done: an anti-tank ditch was dug, bunkers and dugouts were built, and a whole system of trenches was dug out.

The weak supplies are evidenced by the memories of the direct participants in the events. Thus, Colonel Voevodin recalled that it was a super complicated task to arm the militia. Military warehouses, apparently, were bursting so much that the volunteers had to go to the battlefields and collect captured (mostly German) weapons.

The militiamen kept their milestones as long as possible by defending their native land with titanic efforts: the defense of Mogilev lasted 23 days and ended in defeat, but the miracles of heroism shown by the defenders of the city were not in vain. Every minute of desperate resistance played against the Germans: a huge country received a delay to mobilize forces.

People's feat

The Germans launched the offensive on Mogilev on July 12, choosing their favorite tactic of "mites". From the north side, the city managed to get around relatively easily: the 53rd Infantry Division, which fell under the main blow, was smashed, its connection with its command was interrupted. But in the other direction of the fascists there was an unpleasant surprise: here they were trapped by the heroic 172nd Division under the command of Major-General Romanov.

On the Buinichi field (nearby Buinichi village) the battle was taken by the 388th Infantry Regiment of Colonel Kutepov. The personality of this commander has become legendary. It was military, as they say, from God: a talented, courageous, literate person, not afraid to take responsibility.

The terrible battle lasted 14 hours, the losses on both sides were huge. Of the 70 German tanks abandoned for a breakthrough, Soviet soldiers were able to destroy 39. The participants later recalled that the artillery support was inadequate, the supply, especially with regard to ammunition, was unsatisfactory (and even if from mid-July it was carried out only from the air, And there in 1941 the Luftwaffe reigned supreme). But let the bottles with incendiary mixture and should not be the weapon of a regular, well-armed army, well-equipped fascists had to give up.

The next day, July 13, the 3rd Panzer Division of the enemy made another attempt to break through to the city, but again failed. This time the fight lasted 10 hours. The 172nd division held the Buinichskoye field until July 22 (street fights already began in Mogilev).

Unsuccessful German awards

The resistance of Soviet troops was an unpleasant surprise for the Germans, who considered it necessary to hide the bitter truth from their dear Fuehrer. The bet reported on the local victory gained at the beginning of the month, and this caused several curiosities. When the Buinichskoye field was shaken by the explosions of shells, and Mogilev still controlled the Soviet troops, one German military rank, gathered to have a drink in the city, which he believed to be taken long ago, was straight to the local headquarters of the Red Army.

In the same story, the fascists came in, who were carrying the three awards for "Taking Moscow" - Hitler, in all seriousness, believed that this momentous event was just around the corner (is it possible to blame him for such weak awareness?). Untreated medals still exist, their lucky owner was the Mogilev Regional Museum.

Everlasting memory

It should be noted that the Buinichskoe field has repeatedly witnessed how people enthusiastically kill each other. As early as 1595, there was a bloody battle between the forces of peasant rebels under the leadership of Severin Nalivaiko and the troops of the Lithuanian principality. To rebels to win it was not possible (forces were too unequal), but it was possible to disappear. In 1812 the Russians fought here with the Napoleonic army. During the WWII, the Buinichskoye field was again soaked with blood.

On May 9, 1995, on the site where Soviet soldiers fiercely fought, a memorial complex was opened, designed by the architects Chalenko and Baranovsky.

Memorial Complex

It occupies more than 20 hectares and begins with an entrance decorated with an elegant arcade. From it on one of the four avenues you can walk to the central part of the composition - the chapel, in which the remains of the deceased defenders of the city are buried. Their names (those that are known) are carved on marble slabs placed along the walls of the room.

On the territory of the complex there is a small artificial pond, which is called the Tear Lake. This is a symbolic tribute to the tears and grief of mothers, whose children were taken away by the war. Not far from the chapel is also a museum of military equipment, some of which exhibits are unique.

Monument to the poet

One of the avenues that diverge from the center of the complex is dedicated to Konstantin Simonov, the author of many famous works (in particular, "Wait for me"). A stone with a memorable inscription is erected here, the ashes of the poet were scattered over the Buinichsky field after his death.

Simonov really witnessed heated fights: he was near Mogilev on July 13-14 and personally knew Colonel Kutepov, whose spiritual and professional qualities he valued very highly. During the war Simonov served as a military correspondent for Izvestiya, and the battle on the Buinichskoye field was his first combat experience, deeply crashing into the heart.

Heroism defenders of the city made Konstantin Mikhailovich so deeply impressed that he even bothered about awarding Mogilev the title of the city-hero, repeatedly came, met with participants in the events.

"Yes, we live, not forgetting"

Simonov's note "Hot Day" was published in Izvestia on July 20. Until the fall of Mogilev, called for secrecy by the city of D, there remained eight days, but the courage with which the Soviet troops defended the occupied lines, was a good incentive for strengthening the morale of the Red Army. Subsequently, Mogilev was even called the father of Stalingrad, and the Buinichskoye field forever became a symbol of courage, unbroken will, aspiration to protect the native land from the enemy.

Militarily, the heroism of the defenders of the city was also not in vain: their efforts served as a deterrent to the invaders, who lost precious time here, which was worth the weight of gold for both sides.

The Buinichskoye Pole memorial complex is a visited place. Belarusians, in general, take their history very carefully: they take care of monuments to fallen soldiers, even those in remote villages, showing respect for the exploit of those who sacrificed themselves for the sake of the lives of the next generations.

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