The war, the blockade, Leningrad. How many days did the blockade of Leningrad go on? Blockade of Leningrad: years

The desire to capture Leningrad simply pursued the entire German command. In the article we will tell about the event itself and about how many days the blockade of Leningrad continued. It was planned with the help of several armies, united under the command of General-Field Marshal Wilhelm von Leib and the common name "North", to drive the Soviet troops out of the Baltic states and begin to seize Leningrad. After the success of this operation, the German invaders would have great opportunities to suddenly break into the rear of the Soviet army and leave Moscow without protection.

Leningrad blockade. date

The seizure of Leningrad by the Germans would automatically deprive the USSR of the Baltic Fleet, and this would several times worsen the strategic situation. Opportunities to create a new front to protect Moscow in this situation were not, because all the forces have already been used. Soviet troops could not psychologically accept the capture of the city by the enemy, and the answer to the question: "How many days did the blockade of Leningrad continue?" Would be quite different. But it happened as it happened.

July 10, 1941, the Germans attacked Leningrad, the superiority of their troops was obvious. Invaders, except 32 infantry divisions, had 3 tank, 3 motorcycle divisions and huge support for aviation. In this battle, the German soldiers were confronted by the northern and north-western front, where there were much fewer people (total 31 divisions and 2 brigades). In this case, the defenders lacked tanks, weapons, or grenades, and the aircraft in general was 10 times less than the attackers.

Blockade of Leningrad: the history of the first attacks of the German army

With a lot of effort, the fascists pushed back the Soviet troops to the Baltic region and launched an offensive on Leningrad in two directions. Finnish troops moved through Karelia, and German planes concentrated near the city itself. Soviet soldiers restrained the enemy's advance by all means and even stopped the Finnish army near the Karelian Isthmus.

The German army "North" went on the offensive in two directions: Lush and Novgorod-Chudov. The main shock division changed tactics and moved to Leningrad. Also, the German aviation flew to the city, which greatly exceeded the Soviet one. However, despite the fact that the USSR aircraft in many respects was inferior to the enemy, she missed only a few fascist planes into the airspace over Leningrad. In August, German troops broke through to Shimsk, but Red Army soldiers stopped the enemy near Staraya Russa. This slightly slowed down the movement of the fascists and even created a threat to their surroundings.

Changing the direction of impact

The fascist command changed direction and sent two motorized divisions to Staraya Russa with the support of bombers. In August, the cities of Novgorod and Chudovo were captured and the railway tracks were blocked. The command of the German troops decided to unite near the Ladoga Lake their army with the Finnish, advancing in this direction. Already at the end of August, enemy forces blocked all roads leading to Leningrad, and on September 8 the city was taken by the enemy in a blockade. Keep in touch with the outside world only by air or by water. Thus, the fascists "encircled" Leningrad, began shelling the city and civilians. There were regular bombardments from the air.
Not having found a common language with Stalin in the issue of defense of the capital, on September 12, G. Zhukov goes to Leningrad and proceeds to take active steps to protect the city. But by October 10, because of the difficult military situation near Moscow, Zhukov had to go there, and Major-General Fedyuninsky was appointed instead of him.

Hitler threw additional divisions from other districts in order to completely capture Leningrad in a short time and destroy all Soviet troops. The struggle for the city lasted 871 days. Despite the fact that the enemy's offensive was suspended, the locals were on the verge of life and death. Food supplies were getting smaller every day, and shelling and air strikes never stopped.

The road of life

From the first day of the blockade, only one way of strategic destination - the Road of Life - could be left from the besieged city. She passed through Lake Ladoga, it was through her that women and children could escape from Leningrad. Also along this road, the city received food, medicine and ammunition. But the food was still not enough, the shops were empty, and near the bakery a large number of people gathered to get their ration on coupons. The "road of life" was narrow and constantly under the Nazis' sights, but there was no other way out of the city.


Soon frosts began, and ships with provisions could not reach Leningrad. The city began a terrible famine. Engineers and workers at the plants were laid 300 grams of bread, and ordinary Leningraders - only 150 grams. But now the quality of bread has deteriorated significantly - it was a rubber mixture made from the remains of stale bread and other inedible impurities. We also cut the rations. And when the frosts reached minus forty, Leningrad during the siege remained without water, and without electricity. But factories for the production of weapons and ammunition worked without stopping even in such a difficult time for the city.

The Germans were sure that the city would not last long in such terrible conditions, its capture was expected from day to day. The blockade of Leningrad, the date of the beginning of which, according to the fascists, was to become the date of the capture of the city, unpleasantly surprised the command. People did not lose heart and supported each other and their defenders as best they could. They were not going to surrender to the enemy. The siege dragged on, the morale of the invaders gradually subsided. The city was not able to capture, and the situation became more complex with every day actions of the partisans. Army Group "North" was ordered to gain a foothold on the spot, and in the summer, when reinforcements come, to take decisive action.

First attempts to liberate the city

In 1942 the Soviet troops tried several times to liberate the city, but the breakthrough of the blockade of Leningrad failed. Although all attempts failed, the offensive weakened the position of the enemy and provided an opportunity to try to lift the blockade again. This process involved Voroshilov and Zhukov. On January 12, 1944, the troops of the Soviet Army with the support of the Baltic Fleet launched an offensive. Heavy fighting forced the enemy to use all his forces. Powerful blows on all flanks forced Hitler's army to begin a retreat, and in June the enemy was thrown back 300 kilometers from Leningrad. The breakthrough of the blockade of Leningrad became a triumph and a turning point in the war.

The duration of the blockade

History did not know such a brutal and prolonged military siege of the settlement, as in Leningrad. How many anxious nights had to be experienced by the inhabitants of the besieged city, how many days ... The blockade of Leningrad lasted 871 days. People suffered so much pain and suffering that would be enough for the whole world until the end of the century! The blockade of Leningrad is truly bloody and dark for all. It was broken thanks to the selflessness and courage of the Soviet soldiers, ready to sacrifice their lives in the name of their homeland. After so many years, many historians and ordinary people were interested in only one thing: was there any possibility of avoiding such a cruel fate? Probably not. Hitler simply dreamed of a day when he could seize the Baltic fleet and block the road to Murmansk and Arkhangelsk, from where reinforcements arrived for the Soviet army. Was it possible to design this situation in advance and prepare for it in a little bit? "The blockade of Leningrad - the story of heroism and blood" - so it would be possible to characterize this terrible period. But let's look at the reasons why the tragedy unfolded.

Preconditions for the blockade and the causes of hunger

In 1941, at the beginning of September, the city of Shlisselburg was captured by the fascists. Thus, Leningrad was surrounded. Initially, Soviet people did not believe that the situation would lead to such deplorable consequences, but panic took on the people of Leningrad. The store shelves were empty, all the money was taken from the savings banks in literally in a matter of hours, the bulk of the population was preparing for a long siege of the city. Some citizens even managed to leave the settlement before the fascists started massacres, bombings and shootings of innocent people. But after the brutal siege began, it was already impossible to get out of the city. Some historians argue that the terrible famine in the siege days was due to the fact that at the beginning of the siege all the Badaevsk warehouses were burnt, and with them food stocks designed for the whole city.

However, after studying all the documents on this topic, which, incidentally, until recently, were classified, it became clear that there were no "deposits" of food in these warehouses from the very beginning. In the difficult war years, the creation of a strategic reserve for 3 million inhabitants of Leningrad was simply an impossible task. The local people ate the imported food, and they did not last more than a week. Therefore, the following severe measures were applied: food cards were introduced, all letters were strictly monitored, schools were closed. If in any of the messages any attachment was seen or the text contained a decadent mood, it was destroyed.

Life and death in the city's beloved city

The blockade of Leningrad is years, over which scientists are still arguing. Indeed, looking through the surviving letters and records of people who survived this terrible time, and trying to answer the question "how many days the blockade of Leningrad continued," historians opened the whole horrible picture of what is happening. Immediately hunger, poverty and death struck the inhabitants. Money and gold depreciated completely. Evacuation was planned in the early autumn of the 41st, but only by January of the next year it became possible to get out of this terrible place most of the inhabitants. Near the kiosks, where people received rations on cards, there were simply unthinkable queues. In this frosty time, not only famine and invaders killed people. The thermometer kept a record low temperature for a long time. It provoked the freezing of water pipes and the rapid use of all available fuel in the city. The population remained in frost without water, light and heat. Hordes of hungry rats became a huge problem for people. They ate all the food stocks and were the carriers of terrible diseases. Due to all these reasons, people weakened and exhausted by hunger and disease died right on the streets, they did not even have time to bury them.

People's life in blockade

Despite the severity of the situation, the local people were able to support the life of the city. In addition, the Leningrad people also helped the Soviet Army. Despite the terrible conditions of life, the factories did not stop their work for an instant and almost all produced military products.

People supported each other, tried not to drop the culture of the city in the mud, restore the work of theaters and museums. Everyone wanted to prove to the invaders that nothing could shake their faith in a brighter future. The most striking example of love for his native city and life was shown by the history of the creation of the "Leningrad Symphony" by D. Shostakovich. The composer began work on it in besieged Leningrad, and finished in the evacuation. After completion, she was transferred to the city, and the local symphony orchestra played a symphony for all Leningraders. During the concert, Soviet artillery did not allow a single enemy aircraft to break through to the city, so that the bombing would not disrupt the long-awaited premiere. Local radio continued to work, which gave local residents a sip of fresh information and prolonged the will to live.

Children are heroes. Ensemble AE Obrant

The most painful topic at all times was the theme of saving suffering children. The beginning of the siege of Leningrad hit everyone, and by the smallest in the first place. The childhood spent in a city, has left a serious imprint on all Leningrad children. All of them have matured before their peers, since the fascists cruelly stole their childhood and carefree time. Children along with adults tried to bring the Victory day closer. There are among them those who were not afraid to give their lives for the approach of a joyful day. They remained in many hearts heroes. An example can serve as a story of the children's dance ensemble AE Obrant. In the first blockade winter most of the children were evacuated, but in spite of this, there were still a lot of them in the city. Even before the outbreak of war, the Song and Dance Ensemble was founded in the Palace of Pioneers. And in wartime, the teachers who remained in Leningrad searched for their former students and resumed the work of ensembles and circles. Also acted and choreographer Obrant. From the remaining guys in the city, he created a dance ensemble. During these terrible and hungry days, the children did not allow themselves time to relax, and the ensemble gradually got on its feet. And this despite the fact that before the start of rehearsals, many guys had to be saved from exhaustion (they simply could not bear even the slightest load).

After some time the band started to give concerts. In the spring of 1942, the guys began to tour, they tried very hard to raise morale to the soldiers. The soldiers looked at these courageous children and could not restrain their emotions. During the whole blockade of the city, children with concerts visited all garrisons and gave more than 3 thousand concerts. There have been occasions when speeches were interrupted by bombing and air raids. The guys were not afraid even to go to the front line to cheer up and support their defenders, although they danced without music, so as not to attract the attention of the Germans. After the city was liberated from the invaders, all the children of the ensemble were awarded with medals "For the Defense of Leningrad".

The long-awaited breakthrough!

A turning point in favor of Soviet troops occurred in 1943, and the soldiers were preparing for the liberation of Leningrad from the German invaders. On January 14, 1944, the defenders began the final stage of the liberation of the city. The enemy was dealt a crushing blow and opened all overland roads connecting Leningrad with other settlements of the country. The blockade of Leningrad was broken on January 27, 1944 by soldiers of the Volkhov and Leningrad Front. The Germans began to retreat gradually, and soon they completely removed the blockade.

This tragic page in the history of Russia, sprinkled with the blood of two million people. The memory of the dead heroes is passed from generation to generation and lives in the hearts of people to this day. How many days the blockade of Leningrad went on, and the courage shown by people, even admires Western historians.

The price of the blockade

On January 27, 1944, at 8 pm, holiday salutes took off in the liberation from Leningrad. Selfless Leningraders lasted 872 days in difficult conditions of the siege, but now everything is left behind. The heroism of these ordinary people still amazes historians, the defense of the city is still being studied by research workers. And there is why! The blockade of Leningrad lasted almost 900 days and claimed many lives ... It is difficult to say exactly how much.

Despite the fact that more than 70 years have passed since 1944, historians can not voice the exact figure of the victims of this bloody event. Below are some data taken from the documents.

So, the official figure of those killed in the blockade is 632,253 people. People died for several reasons, but mostly from bombing, cold and hunger. Leningradians have hard survived the cold winter of 1941/1942, in addition, the constant interruptions with food, electricity and water completely worn out the population. The blockade of the city of Leningrad experienced people not only mentally, but also physically. Residents received a meager ration of bread, which was barely enough (and sometimes not enough at all) to not die of hunger.

Historians conduct their research on the documents of the regional and city committees of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, preserved from the time of war. Such information is available to registrars, who recorded the number of dead people. Once these papers were secret, but after the collapse of the USSR they declassified the archives, and many documents became available to almost everyone.

The number of deaths mentioned above strongly differs from reality. The liberation of Leningrad from the fascist blockade was given to ordinary people at the cost of numerous lives, blood and suffering. Some sources refer to 300 thousand deaths, while in others they mention 1.5 million. Only civilians who did not have time to evacuate from the city were brought here. The dead soldiers from the units of the Leningrad Front and the Baltic Fleet are listed in the list of "Defenders of the City."

The Soviet authorities did not disclose the true figure of the dead. After the blockade of Leningrad was lifted, all data about the victims were classified, and every year the figure with the enviable permanence changed. At the same time it was alleged that about 7 million people perished in the war of the USSR with the fascists from our side. Now they are announcing a figure of 26.6 million ...

Naturally, the number of deaths in Leningrad was not particularly distorted, but, nevertheless, several times was revised. In the end, we stopped at the mark of 2 million people. The year of lifting the blockade has become both the happiest and the most sad for people. Only now has come the realization of how many people died from hunger and cold. And how many still gave their lives for liberation ...

Discussions about the number of dead will be conducted for a long time. There are new data and new estimates, the exact figure of the victims of the Leningrad tragedy, it seems, will never be known. Nevertheless, the words "war", "blockade", "Leningrad" caused and will cause in future generations a feeling of pride in people and a feeling of incredible pain. This is something to be proud of. The year of the lifting of the siege of Leningrad is the year of the triumph of the human spirit and the forces of good over darkness and chaos.

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