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The image of Lisa in the story "Poor Lisa" by Karamzin

Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin (1766-1826) strongly influenced the development of Russian literature, transforming the Russian language, freeing him from complex Latin constructions and Slavisms, bringing him closer to living human speech.

Features of sentimentalism

Creativity of the writer brings up feelings, calls for kindness and mercy. Thus, a new trend in Russian literature is emerging - sentimentalism, which gave the main role to the inner world of man.

Perhaps today the work "Poor Lisa" seems somewhat remote from life, and the feelings of the heroes are unnatural. However, it should be remembered that Karamzin worked in the genre of sentimentalism. And the work "Poor Liza", written in 1792, was a source of inspiration for the following Russian writers, being an excellent example of this genre. Sentimentalism is characterized by sharp conflicts, often leading to the death of the hero, and "Poor Liza" is no exception. The death of the girl shakes and makes empathy for many generations of readers.

New name

In addition to the new genre, Karamzin gave our country a new name, made it popular. In translation, Elizabeth means "worshiping God." So the mother of John the Baptist, the wife of Aaron the high priest , was called. This name was almost never found in Russian writers until the eighties of the 18th century. It is worth noting that in European literature this name was often associated with the image of a maid, a servant, usually frivolous and flirtatious, and was used mainly in comedies. The image of Liza in the story "Poor Lisa" (for a brief description of the work, see below), however, this tradition does not follow. Breaking the usual framework of the meaning of the word, Karamzin also broke with classicism, his settled definitions.

The image of Lisa in the story "Poor Lisa" played an important role in the development of Russian literature in general, so I would like to dwell on it in more detail. You will see that it was a strong nature, not at all like the European authors used to depict it. We propose to consider the image of Lisa in the story "Poor Lisa" with quotations and a brief summary of the work.

Characters, story

But to begin with, we indicate other characters in the story and briefly describe its main events. In addition to Liza's peasant woman, the main characters are: her mother, Erast and the narrator. The plot of the work in general is not new: a man seduces a young girl, and then throws it. However, this story had its own peculiarities. The author described a typical situation for Russia in the 18th century: a nobleman, a landowner, knowing his impunity and using it, seduces a peasant woman, a young girl. It is striking in this story that at that time in this situation the society was not at all eager to condemn the landowner, and the truth in any case was on his side.

Already in the title the author's attitude to his heroine is guessed: he calls Lisa poor.

The first meeting with the heroine

The story begins with a description of Moscow, where in the future there are some events, as well as the Simonov Monastery, in the vicinity of which the heroine was subsequently buried.

For the first time on the pages of the work the author describes us to Lisa through the eyes of the narrator. Speaking of her, he uses a lot of epithets ("nice", "beautiful", etc.), so that the reader may even think that the narrator loved Lisa. However, the end of history gives a clear understanding that he simply pities her. It should be noted that in this story the narrator expresses the author's attitude towards his heroine. Why does Karamzin love and pity Lisa?

Past Lisa

Let us turn to the past of the heroine and describe the image of Lisa in the story "Poor Lisa" shortly. This girl is a peasant woman, she lives in a poor hut with her old mother. When our heroine was 15 years old, her father, a "well-off villager", died, and after his death the family became poor and had to give the land for rent for a very small fee. My mother, because of poor health, did not have the opportunity to work, and Liza had to work very hard to feed herself and her mother. The girl was engaged in different crafts - knitting stockings, weaving canvases, in the spring she collected and sold flowers in Moscow, and in the summer - berries. We are not personally acquainted with Lisa, but we already understand that she is self-sacrificing, ready to make sacrifices for the sake of relatives, hardworking.

The character of Lisa

As the plot develops, the character of the main character, the image of Liza in the story "Poor Liza" by NM Karamzin, is revealed. Poor Lisa - the heroine is very attractive. We understand that this is a pure and profound soul, possessing a receptive and soft heart. Liza was often sad because of her father's death, but her mother tried not to show it and tried to appear "calm and cheerful." The girl is timid and timid by nature. The first time she met Erast, she "showed him flowers - and flushed."

This is the image of Lisa in the story "Poor Lisa." The plan of this image is supplemented by one more detail. It is necessary to note the honesty of the heroine. When Erast wanted to buy flowers from her and offered a ruble instead of five cents, she said that she did not want too much. Liza is naive, sometimes to the extreme: she immediately tells where she lives, to a complete stranger.

Speech of the main character

Analyzing this, we can say that in this Lisa's image in the story "Poor Lisa" was not elaborated enough: her speech is sometimes not the same as that of a peasant woman, but as a girl from a high society. Clearly, an uneducated simple girl simply could not express herself like that. Despite this, the image of Lisa in the story "Poor Lisa" Karamzin is considered the first woman from the lower class in Russian literature. The image of a girl from the people in the 18th century was very progressive and atypical, especially as a heroine of a love story. Karamzin put into the image of Lisa in the story "Poor Lisa" a deep meaning: before God and love there are no estates, all people are equal, "and the peasant women are able to love."

Later, AS Pushkin in his work "The Girl-Peasant Woman" continued this theme, however, it was Karamzin who first introduced it into literature.

A new attitude towards a woman

Another novelty of the writer was the attitude towards the woman. After all, in the 18th century it was considered to be lower than a man, she did not have freedom. The woman could not love the one she wanted, the chosen one was looking for her daughter's parents. Of course, under such a situation it was rarely possible to meet happy married couples. Those who tried to love against the will of their parents were exposed to disgrace in the eyes of society, this kind of love was considered immoral. The image of Liza in the story "Poor Lisa" NM Karamzin clearly shows this. Later the topic is developed by other writers, in particular Ostrovsky.

Lisa's crime was that she dared to love contrary to public opinion. And the Russian peasant women always knew how to love passionately, passionately and forever. Refusing to marry a rich peasant son from a neighboring village, Lisa gave herself completely to her lover.

Betrayal of Erast

But Erast was a scoundrel, abandoning Lisa. The heroine only accidentally finds out about his treason. Having gone to Moscow to buy rose water, she accidentally encounters on the street with his coach. Lisa rushes to her, but the carriage drives past her and stops at the courtyard of the big house. The heroine runs up, hugs her lover, but he calmly reports that he is getting married (as it turns out later, he married a wealthy widow to fix his position, since in the campaign he lost almost all his money to the cards) and asks to leave him alone, trying To buy off money from Lisa. And Karamzin does not justify his hero, but openly condemns him. For his betrayal Erast will be punished: he is destined to be unhappy until the end of his life and blame himself for Liza's death. At the end of the work, he dies.

Continuing to analyze the image of Lisa in the story "Poor Lisa" by Karamzin, we should note one more important detail: she loved Erast, but at the same time did not forget about her mother, and it was the care of her that stopped Liza from trying to go to war for her lover . Although the heroine was very worried about Erast, she was afraid that he would be killed in the war. After all, Lisa could not even write to her lover's message, because she simply could not do it.

Death of a poor girl

The suicide of Lisa is a very important episode in revealing her character. After all, this girl seemed to be the embodiment of Christian virtues. How could such a pure soul decide on such a grievous sin? The heroine decides to drown herself by rushing into the water. But you can not blame Lisa - grief deprived her of her last strength, and the heroine simply could not stand it. Even before her death, she does not forget about her mother: she goes to the pond to drown, she passes a hundred rubles to a neighbor's girlfriend with a request to give them to her mother and say that her daughter loved a man, and he changed her. The writer, while not justifying the suicide of the heroine, still forgives Lisa. Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin believes that, despite the brunt of the crime, Lisa's soul will go to heaven.

The meaning of the story

Many writers of the 19th century (Turgenev, Dostoevsky, Pushkin, Ostrovsky, Goncharov, Tolstoy) drew inspiration from this image and created many vivid female characters, as pure and selfless as the image of Liza in the story "Poor Liza."

In this novel, the author touched on important topics of imperfection of the structure of society and the shortcomings of human nature. We can not fix something ourselves, we just have to accept this as a fact, and to condemn and reproach someone is pointless. There is no villain in the work, there is only a person belonging to the secular circle, acting according to generally accepted opinions. Erastus had a kind heart from nature, but his "artificial" education and education spoiled his character. The writer sympathizes with him, since in this situation it is not the person who is to blame but the mores of the era and society under which the hero lived.

Immediately after its publication (in 1792) the work aroused great interest, which did not weaken for several decades. Appeared even frank imitations, for example, "Seduced Henrietta" Svechinsky (1803), "Poor Masha" Izmaylova (1801).

The image of Lisa in the story "Poor Lisa", the brief content of which you just looked at, was remembered for a long time by readers. And now the work of Karamzin is not forgotten, because humanistic ideas are always relevant.

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