### Education, The science

# Pierre Fermat: biography, photo, discoveries in mathematics

Pierre de Fermat is one of the greatest scientists in the history of France. His achievements include the creation of such works as the theory of probability and numbers, he is the author of outstanding theorems and the discoverer of a number of mathematical properties. From the very early years his parents paid great attention to the education of his son and, most likely, it influenced the formation of a grandiose mind. Always calm and active, inquisitive and strict, searching and finding - all this is Pierre Fermat. A brief biography will help the reader to pick up all the most interesting things about this colossal math personality.

## Early stages

Pierre was born in France. He is one of the pioneers and creators of number theory, as well as analytical geometry.

For a long time it was said that Pierre Fermat was born in 1595 in Toulouse, but by the middle of the nineteenth century a record was found in the archives of the town of Beaumont, where it was said that in the summer of 1601 the son of Dominica's farm advisor and his wife Pierre. It is known that Dominic Fermat was a very respected man in the city. He was a leather merchant. Child years Pierre spent next to his parents, and when it was time to get an education, he went to Toulouse - the closest city to the universities. A well-studied right to the university bench gave Pierre an opportunity to work as a lawyer, but the young man decided to transfer to the service to the state. In 1631 Pierre was enlisted in the place of the adviser of the cashier to the Parliament of Toulouse. At this time, Fermat was already married to the daughter of an adviser to parliament, in which he worked. His life was very quiet and calm. But thanks to him today people who are studying mathematics can learn a lot of interesting information, which is truly priceless. Even in the school curriculum, the topic "Pierre Fermat and his discoveries" is actively being given attention.

## Hobbies for history

In his youth, the future mathematician was renowned as the thinnest connoisseur of history (especially antiquity), and he was used to publish the classics of Greece. He left comments on the works of Sinezug, Athenaeus, Polunus, Frontin, Theon of Smyrna, introduced amendments to the texts of Sextus Empiricus. Many believe that he could easily leave his mark as an outstanding Greek philologist.

However, due to the fact that he chose a different path, the light saw his grand research in its magnitude. And that's why most people know that Pierre Fermat is a mathematician.

About his work during his life became known mainly through the extensive correspondence that Fermat conducted with other scientists. The collection of works, which he had tried to compile, was never put into practice. Strictly speaking, this is a logical result with such a load on the main work in court. In the lifetime of Pierre, none of the masses of his works were published.

## Pierre Fermat: discoveries in mathematics

One of the first works in the field of mathematics in Pierre Fermat is the renewal of two lost books-essays by Apollonius titled "On flat ground". The great merit of Pierre before science is seen by most in the introduction of infinitely small quantities into analytic geometry. He took this extremely important step in 1629. Also at the end of the twenties, Pierre Fermat found ways to find tangents and extremes. And already in 1636 the completely completed description of the method of finding was handed over to Mersenne, and anyone could familiarize with this work.

## Controversy with Descartes

In 1637-38, the French mathematician Pierre Ferma stormily argued with the equally prominent mathematician Rene Descartes. The polemics arose around the "Method of finding the minimums and maximums". Descartes did not fully understand the method and did not understand it, for this reason he subjected him to unfair criticism. In the summer of 1638, Pierre Fermat sent Mersenne to convey to Descartes an updated and more detailed exposition of his method. His letter reflects his reserved character, because it is written in an extremely dry and calm manner, but at the same time there is a certain amount of irony in it. His letter contains even a direct mockery of Descartes' misunderstanding. Farm has never entered into a senseless and unrestrained polemic, he constantly adhered to an even and cold tone. It was not a dispute, but, rather, the conversation was like a teacher's communication with a student who did not understand something.

## Systematics of area calculation

Prior to Pierre Fermat, the methods of finding areas were developed by the Italian Cavalieri. However, by 1642 Fermat discovered a way to find areas that are limited by any "parabolas" and "hyperbolas". He managed to prove that the area of almost any unlimited figure can still have a finite value.

## The problem of straightening curves

One of the very first began the study of the problem of calculating the lengths of arc curves. He managed to sum up the problem to find some areas. The calculation of the area was reduced to all the problems on the curves. One drop remained to introduce a new and more abstract notion of "integral".

In the future, the entire positive outcome of the methods for determining "areas" was in the search for a relationship with the "method of extremes and tangents." There is information that Fermat has already seen a clear relationship, but none of his works reflects this view.

Unlike most of his associates in the case, Pierre de Fermat was the purest mathematician and never tried to explore other branches of science. Probably, it is for this reason that his powerful contribution to all mathematics is so deep and great.

## On the theory of numbers

The most important contribution of Fermat to mathematics and to this day is the creation of a completely new discipline - a numerical theory. During his entire career, the scientist was interested in arithmetical problems, which he sometimes invented and made his own. In the process of finding answers to the questions posed in the tasks, Fermat often discovered something completely new and unique. New algorithms and laws, theorems and properties - all this once formed the basis of the theory of numbers, now known to every schoolboy.

## Contribution to the work of other scientists

Thus, Pierre Fermat discovered regularities for natural numbers and established them for centuries. Proceedings on natural numbers are called "theorems of arithmetic." One of them, for example, is the famous "small theorem". Later, she served as a special case for Euler's works. It is also known that it was the work of Pierre Fermat that laid the groundwork for Lagrange's theorem on the sum of 4 squares.

## Fermat's theorem

Of course, the greatest and most powerful theorem stands out most of all from Pierre's works. For many years and even decades, it forced the greatest mathematicians to "puzzle", and even after it was published in 1995, new and very diverse methods of its proof still arrive at the departments with a mathematical bias at many universities of the world.

Although Fermat left only brief accounts of his work and scrappy information, it was his discoveries that gave impetus to many other outstanding geniuses of mathematics. In his honor, one of the most prestigious and old lyceums in France was named - Pierre Fermat Lyceum in Toulouse.

## Death of a scientist

During his most active work in the field of mathematics, Fermat is moving rather rapidly up in the case. In 1648, Pierre became a member of the House of Edicts. Such a high position testified to the highest position of the scientist.

In Castres, where Fermat became an edict, he dies at the exit to the regular session of the court. Death came to mathematics at the age of only 64 years. The eldest son of the scientist undertook to bring the works of his father to the people and released a number of his studies.

This was Pierre Fermat. His biography was rich, but life left a trace for all time.

The works of this giant of mathematics can not be overestimated and underestimated, because they laid a solid foundation for many researchers. Pierre Fermat, photo (portraits) of which are given in the article, had a solid character, which throughout his life helped him achieve his goals.

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