Phonetic process occurring in a word (example). Phonetic processes in the language

The phonetic process that takes place in a word, largely explains its spelling and pronunciation. This language phenomenon should be taken into account when performing sound analysis in Russian language lessons. Particular attention is paid here to the position of a particular sound. The so-called positional phonetic processes are characteristic of most languages. It is interesting that many changes in the sound design of the word depend on the locality of the carriers. Someone rounds out the vowels, someone softens the consonants. Differences between the Moscow boulevard and the St. Petersburg boulevard have already become textbook.

Definition of concept

What is the phonetic process? This is a special change in the soundness of letters under the influence of all sorts of factors. The type of this process depends on these factors. If they are not dictated by the most lexical component of the language, the common pronunciation of the word (for example, stress) - this phenomenon will be called positional. This includes all kinds of reduced consonants and vowels, as well as stunning at the end of the word.

Another thing - those phonetic processes in the language, which give the confluence of different sounds in words. They will be called combinatorial (that is, they depend on a certain combination of sounds). First of all here include assimilation, voicing and mitigation. And it can be influenced by both the subsequent sound (regressive process) and the previous one (progressive).

Reduction of vowels

First, let's analyze the phenomenon of reduction. It is worth saying that it is typical for both vowels and consonants. As for the former, this phonetic process is completely subject to the stress in the word.

To begin with, it should be said that all the vowels in words are divided according to the attitude to the stressed syllable. To the left from it go pre-shock, to the right - zaudarnye. For example, the word "TV". Shock syllable -wi-. Accordingly, the first pre-radar-le, the second pre- A zaudarnyi-sir.

In general, the reduction of vowels is divided into two types: quantitative and qualitative. The first is determined not by the change in sound design, but only by intensity and duration. This phonetic process concerns only one vowel, [y]. For example, it is enough to pronounce the word "boudoir" clearly. The stress here falls on the last syllable, and if in the first preset "y" it is heard clearly and more or less loudly, then in the second pre-war it is heard much weaker.

The quality reduction is another thing. It involves not only a change in strength and weakness of sound, but also in a different timbre coloration. Thus, the articulation of sounds changes.

For example, [o] and [a] in a strong position (ie under stress) are always heard distinctly, it is impossible to confuse them. For example, let's analyze the word "samovar". In the first pre-syllable syllable (-mo-) the letter "o" is heard quite distinctly, but not completely formed before the end. For her, the transcription has its own designation [^]. In the second pre-syllable syllable, the syllabic is even more fuzzy, heavily reduced. For him there is also a designation []]. Thus, the transcription will look like this: [edit].

Vowels, before which there are soft consonants, are also very interesting. Again, in a strong position they are heard distinctly. What happens in unstressed syllables? Let's analyze the word "spindle". Shock syllable - the last. In the first pre-vowel the vowel is reduced slightly, it is denoted in transcription as [and e ] - and with the sound of e. The second and third pre-radars were completely reduced. Such sounds are denoted by [b]. Thus, the transcription is as follows: [v''rti ehno].

The scheme of the linguist Potebni is well known. He deduced that the first pre-syllable syllable is the most distinct of all unstressed syllables. All the others are inferior in strength to him. If the vowel in a strong position is taken as 3, and the weakest reduction in 2, we get the following scheme: 12311 (the word "grammatical").

Often phenomena (often in colloquial speech), when the reduction is zero, that is, the vowel is not pronounced at all. There is a similar phonetic process both in the middle and at the end of the word. For example, in the word "wire" we seldom pronounce a vowel in the second bizarre syllable: [proof], and in the word "to" to zero the vowel is reduced in a bizarre syllable [shtob]

Reduction of consonants

Also in modern language there is a phonetic process, called the reduction of consonants. It consists in the fact that such a sound at the end of the word practically disappears (there is often a zero reduction).

This is due to the physiology of pronouncing words: we pronounce them on exhalation, and the air flow is sometimes not enough to well proarticulate the last sound. This also depends on subjective factors: the pace of speech, as well as the characteristics of pronunciation (for example, dialectal).

This phenomenon can be found, for example, in the words "illness", "life" (some dialects do not pronounce the last consonants). Also sometimes j is reduced: we say the word "mine" without it, although, according to the rules, it must be, because "and" stands before the vowel.


A separate process of reduction is stunning, when voiced consonants change under the influence of the deaf or in the absolute end of the word.

For example, take the word "mittens". Here the sonorous [w] is deafened by the deaf [k] behind him. As a result, the combination [shk] is heard.

Another example is the absolute end of the word "oak". Here the sonorous [b] is stunned to [n].

Always voiced consonants (or sonorous) are also subject to this process, although very weakly. If you compare the pronunciation of the word "Christmas tree", where [n] stands after the vowel, and "wave", where the same sound at the end, it is easy to see the difference. In the second case, the sonor sound is shorter and weaker.


Completely the reverse process - voicing. It refers already to combinatorial, that is, depending on certain sounds standing side by side. As a rule, it concerns deaf consonants, which are located before the sonorous ones.

For example, such words as "shift", "do" - here the voicing occurred at the junction of the prefix and the root. This phenomenon is also observed in the middle of the word: ko [s '] ba, pro [s'] ba. Also, the process can take place on the border of the word and the preposition: to the grandmother, "from the village".


Another law of phonetics is that hard sounds soften, if after them go soft consonants.

There are several regularities:

  1. The sound [n] becomes soft when facing [h] or [ni]: ba [n '] s, karma [n'] chik, drum [n '] box.
  2. The sound [c] softens in the position before the soft [t '], [n'], and [s], before [d '] and [n']: go [c '] t, [c'] not, [s '] Here, in [z'] nya.

These two rules apply to all speakers of the academic language, however there are dialects where mitigation also occurs. For example, you can say [d '] believe or [c'] em.


Determine the phonetic process of assimilation can be as an analogy. In other words, sounds that are difficult to pronounce, seem to be like standing nearby. This applies to such combinations as "sc", "zch", also "shch", "zdch" and "stch." They are replaced by [u]. Happiness is [sch] asti; A man is a mu [nu] ina.

Also, the verbal combinations are assimilated-and-to be, instead of them one hears [c]: crowning [c] a, battle [c] a, hear [c] a.

Simplification also applies here. When a group of consonants loses one of them: co [n] tse, izves [n] yak.

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