Ekaterinburg: the story is brief. Ekaterinburg: the history of the city

Ekaterinburg is one of the largest cities of our country. It is relatively young and belongs to the number of settlements that were founded in the period of the emergence of Russian industry and the development of the Urals. That's why, when they talk about Yekaterinburg, the history of the city is full of events connected with iron-making plants and metallurgy. Let's begin our acquaintance.

Ekaterinburg: the history of the region before the appearance of Russian settlers

To date, scientists have facts that allow us to assert that the territory of modern Yekaterinburg was inhabited already in the 8th-7th millennium BC. Between 6000 and 5000 BC. E. The population of these places was actively engaged in developing the natural resources of the region, as evidenced by artifacts found during excavations of ancient workshops. As for the processing of metals, it began to be practiced on the shores of Iset from around the 1st century AD.

First plants

At the time of the appearance of Russian settlers in the territory of modern Yekaterinburg, there was no permanent population there, and sometimes nomads and hunters who were representatives of the Turkic and Finno-Ugric ethno groups stopped. The first Russian settlement in these places is considered to be the village of Old Believers on the shores of Lake Shartash, which was founded around 1672. A little later, there were settlements Nyzhny and Upper Uktus. After it became known about the natural resources of these places, in 1702 it was decided to found the Uktusky, and in 1704 the Shuva Kish ironworks. However, these state enterprises did not act as efficiently as those belonging to the Demidov family, so in 1720 Vasily Tatishchev and Johann Blier were sent to the Urals with inspection. Upon arriving at the Uktus plant, they founded the Siberian Ober-Burgamit, the highest authority for the management of state-owned factories in the region.

As the results of Tatishchev's research showed, an extremely unsuccessful place was chosen for the construction of the Shuvakish and Uktus plants. Therefore, the new Ober-bergamit collegium sent to St. Petersburg a petition for permission to build a new enterprise 7 km from the old one. It was not satisfied, and Tatishcheva was removed from business, ordering him to return to the capital.

Foundation of the city

Two years later Georg de Gennin arrived in the Urals on the orders of Peter the Great, who, having reviewed the rejected project of his predecessor, fully supported him. The construction was started on March 12, 1723, and by order of the government for its organization the Demidovs were forced to send their best specialists to the banks of Iset.

In November 1723, the hammer mill was started in the shop of the plant, and this event is today considered to be the day of foundation of Yekaterinburg.

Ekaterinburg: the history of the city in the first half of the 18th century

At the time of its foundation, the new metallurgical enterprise was the largest and most powerful in the world. Major-General Gennin, who was in charge of the project, personally addressed Catherine the First with a request for awarding the fortress factory of the name Katerinburkh. The Empress mercifully agreed, but she ordered to call the city Ekaterinburg. This name did not catch on, and soon the toponym "Ekaterinburg" appeared on the map of Russia.

The history of the development of metallurgy in the Urals has since began to resemble an exciting novel, full of intrigue and dramatic events. Suffice it to say that the Old Believers began to settle in the city from all over Russia and the runaway Moscow shooters-rebels. There they practically turned into slaves, and those who tried to escape were sent to the prison, which today would be called a concentration camp.

The Pugachev Uprising

So the city was built literally on the bones of workers, there was a ripple. So, during the Pugachev uprising, many residents were not averse to surrender to the rebels Yekaterinburg. History preserved evidence, including that the riot was brewing even among officers who were dissatisfied with the commander of the fortress, General Bibikov.

Mountain town

After the Great Siberian route passed through Yekaterinburg , its rapid development began as a transit hub between Europe and Asia. In these years, his appearance was radically transformed. In particular, many monuments of the history of Yekaterinburg have been created, which today are considered to be its main attractions.

In 1807, the city received the status of a mountain, which gave some privileges. Since that time, the gold mining industry has started to flourish, connected with the opening of 85 precious metal deposits in the vicinity of the city. Through the development of mines, the city began to rapidly grow rich and turn into one of the most important economic and cultural centers of the Russian Empire. There were opened a mountain museum, a professional theater, a meteorological observatory, etc.

The history of the city from the second half of the 19th century to the revolution of 1917

After the abolition of serfdom in 1861, mining began to experience a decline. The crisis affected and Ekaterinburg. The history of its development has since gone a little differently. In other words, speaking in modern language, there was a diversification of the economy, which ultimately had a positive impact on the life of citizens. The development of Yekaterinburg was also promoted by the construction of a railway connecting the city with Perm.

At the beginning of the 20th century the city became the center of the revolutionary movement, headed by Yakov Sverdlov. In 1905, the mass anti-government rally organized by him was dispersed by Cossacks and Black Hundreds, who also organized a bloody pogrom.

Just before the outbreak of the First World War, Kerensky was also a frequent guest in Yekaterinburg, who managed to hold a revolutionary meeting. In parallel with this, ordinary life was going on in the city, and almost on the eve of the revolution of 17th year the first university in the Urals was founded. In general, the history of schools in Yekaterinburg is very interesting, at least as an example of the correct organization of public education in the province.

Civil War

Even the history of the streets of Yekaterinburg and its individual houses is of great interest. So, everyone knows the Ipatiev House, where in 1918 they shot the whole family and some of the close associates of Nicholas II. This was preceded by a bloodless seizure of power in the city in October 1917 and the arrest of the emperor, with his subsequent transfer to the Urals. Then the city for a while was initially under the control of the Czech corps, and later - the troops of Kolchak. However, in 1919, parts of the 2nd and 3rd armies of the Red Army entered Yekaterinburg.


In 1924, Yekaterinburg was renamed. The Soviet name of the city sounded like Sverdlovsk and existed until 1991. Before the Second World War, the city was rapidly developing, and new educational and cultural institutions, as well as large industrial enterprises, were opened there. In the years that followed, all this potential rendered good service to the victory over fascism and the restoration of the destroyed economy of the Soviet Union. In the post-war decades, the development of Yekaterinburg continued at a rapid pace, and by the time of the collapse of the USSR it was a prosperous city with a developed industry.

21st century

The perestroika years and the "dashing 90s" did not have the best impact on the economy of Yekaterinburg. In particular, many industrial enterprises were closed down. However, since the beginning of the 2000s, the situation has changed, and today the city continues to experience an economic recovery. At the moment, Yekaterinburg hosts a variety of political, cultural and entertainment events. For example, recently launched the project "Love Story". Yekaterinburg also often becomes a playground for sports events, and its attractions attract tourists, including from abroad.

Now you know what was the history of Yekaterinburg. For children there are also many interesting places, so at the first opportunity visit this city with the whole family.

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