HealthDiseases and Conditions

Atherosclerosis stenosing: symptoms and treatment

Atherosclerosis is a common disease that has several varieties. Among all the variety of pathological processes, the stenosing form deserves special attention. Most often it occurs in men over 50 years. With age, many people undergo atherosclerotic changes in the vessels. They are not only characterized by the appearance of unpleasant symptoms, but also pose a serious threat to life. In this article, we will consider the main localization and symptoms of stenosing atherosclerosis, as well as the methods of treatment offered by physicians.

Description of the disease and the mechanism of development

Stenosing atherosclerosis is a pathological process that extends to the main arteries of the body. The mechanism of its occurrence is quite simple. Under the influence of certain factors, free fats (cholesterol) begin to be deposited in the walls of the vessels and plaques are formed. The disease passes through several stages of development, the final stage is the narrowing of the artery to a minimum (stenosis). As a result, tissues and organs that are dependent on the site of the disturbed blood supply, are deficient in oxygen and nutrients.

The problem of proliferation of cholesterol plaques and connective tissue between them affects various main arteries. Taking into account the place of development of the pathological process, several types of the disease are distinguished. The peripheral arteries of the lower extremities, the brain and the coronary aorta of the heart are considered to be the most vulnerable. Lack of timely treatment usually leads to irreversible consequences: myocardial infarction, gangrene of the legs, stroke, thromboembolism with internal organs damage.

Main reasons

The development of atherosclerotic lesion of the main arteries is caused by the action of three factors:

  1. Disturbance of fat metabolism. When the system of synthesis and transportation of cholesterol in the body fails, the excess of this substance begins to be deposited on the walls of the vessels. In the role of the trigger mechanism can act somatic diseases, unbalanced diet, obesity.
  2. Hereditary predisposition. If close relatives were diagnosed with atherosclerosis stenosing, the probability of this disease increases several times.
  3. Decreased elasticity of the vascular walls. Cholesterol plaques can not form on a smooth and healthy surface. Damage to the vascular wall is facilitated by the following disorders: diabetes mellitus, sedentary lifestyle, smoking.

In the presence of one or more of the factors listed above, you must pay special attention to your own health, often undergo preventive examinations.

Manifestations of stenosis of the arteries of the brain

Brachiocephalic arteries are large vessels that extend from the arch of the aorta towards the brain. Their multiple intertwining forms the Willis circle. It provides a complete blood supply to the brain.

When an obstacle in the form of an atherosclerotic plaque forms on one of the parts of the Willis circle, they speak of the development of stenosis. This disease affects the operation of the entire blood supply system of the brain. The absence of timely treatment can lead to hypoxia or stroke. Signs of the pathological process depend on the number of atherosclerotic plaques in the arterial channel.

At the outset, the disease is asymptomatic. If the lumen of the vessel is blocked by a plaque by 50% or more, the patient can observe the appearance of uncharacteristic disorders. Among them we can mention:

  • Periodic dizziness on the background of lowering blood pressure;
  • Emotional lability with a predominance of depressive mood;
  • Distraction;
  • Auditory-visual problems (noise in the ears, deterioration of hearing, the appearance of flies before the eyes);
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome;
  • Numbness of fingers;
  • Violation of thermoregulation.

The listed symptoms initially do not practically affect the quality of life. Many patients simply ignore them. Progressive stenosing atherosclerosis of brachiocephalic arteries makes it necessary to seek medical help from a doctor.

Manifestations of stenosis of the heart vessels

To the heart, oxygen and nutrients come through the coronary arteries. The defeat of atherosclerosis of these vessels poses a serious threat to the main muscle of the body, affecting its rhythm and completeness of contractions. In this disease, patients usually complain of pain in the vaginal space. First they appear after physical exertion or stress. Over time, discomfort does not leave a person even in a state of rest. The duration of the pain attack is about 30 minutes.

An acute manifestation of the pathological process is a myocardial infarction. The disease is accompanied by severe pain in the heart, which can not be canceled with a tablet of "Nitroglycerin". Arterial pressure drops, resulting in severe dizziness, weakness. Atherosclerosis stenosing, affecting coronary arteries, can lead to serious complications. These include an aneurysm of the heart, cardiogenic shock and a rupture of the muscle itself. Especially often doctors diagnose sudden death syndrome.

Manifestations of stenosis of arteries of lower extremities

Through the femoral artery, blood flows to the most extreme points of the body, located on the feet. Stenosing atherosclerosis of the lower limbs ranks third in frequency of occurrence. Clinical manifestations of this form of the disease are diverse. Therefore, it is advisable to consider the development of the pathological process in stages:

  1. At the initial stage of the patient, a feeling of chilliness, burning or tingling in the area of the feet is disturbed. Skin on legs noticeably pales.
  2. The second stage is characterized by the appearance of intermittent claudication. One limb when walking or doing sports starts to get tired before the other. Gradually develop unpleasant sensations in the calf muscles area, there is a persistent cyanosis.
  3. At the next stage, the intensity of intermittent claudication increases markedly. It becomes difficult for a patient to pass the usual way without stopping. Often patients complain of pain in the toes, which does not disappear in a state of rest. The skin on the foot acquires a marble shade, can crack and thin.
  4. In the fourth stage, the lameness becomes so pronounced that a person is forced to make stops every 50 steps of the path. There may be trophic ulcers, swelling. Severe pain in the legs interferes with night rest.

It is impossible to wait, when there will be irreversible consequences of the disease in the form of gangrene. If there are symptoms of circulatory disorders in the legs (weakness, intermittent claudication), you need to see a doctor immediately. If the specialist confirms stenosing arteriosclerosis of the arteries of the lower extremities, the treatment will be appointed immediately.

Methods of diagnosis

To timely identify the disease and start its therapy, all people after 40 years of age, doctors recommend to undergo a preventive checkup once a year. It is enough to pass a blood test for the following indicators:

  • Cholesterol, lipoproteins, triglycerides;
  • Fibrinogen;
  • glucose;
  • Coagulability.

These parameters can indirectly indicate a violation of protein-lipid metabolism, which provokes the development of pathology.

Stenosing arteriosclerosis of the arteries of the brain, heart or lower limbs can easily be diagnosed. To do this, the patient is assigned a comprehensive examination, which includes the following procedures:

  • Intravenous / arterial angiography of vessels with contrast;
  • Rheovasography;
  • Doppler study;
  • Triplex scanning.

Based on the results of the examination, the doctor can confirm the preliminary diagnosis. After this, the patient is treated.

Principles of therapy

Treatment of stenosing atherosclerosis largely depends on the stage of the development of the disease the patient turned to the doctor. In the initial stage, in addition to drug therapy, it is necessary to try to change the way of life. It is important to give up bad habits, try to rest more. Otherwise, taking medication only slows the progression of the disease, but does not stop it completely.

On a mandatory basis, the doctor appoints the patient a diet (table number 10), rich in plant foods. Usually it is recommended for patients with hypertension or heart failure. If you adhere to such a diet, you can not only reduce the amount of cholesterol consumed, but also bring its excess out of the body. You can not go on a diet for weight loss. The food should be balanced and full. Otherwise, the therapy will not bring the desired result.

Patients with a diagnosis of "stenotic atherosclerosis of the lower extremities" should be supplemented with sports. Preference should be given to Scandinavian walking or swimming. At the first signs of fatigue in the legs, you must immediately rest, without overloading the body.

Use of medicines

Treatment of atherosclerosis can not be imagined without the use of medications. Usually patients with this diagnosis are prescribed the following groups of drugs:

  1. Disaggregants. Prevent the formation of thrombi in the bloodstream.
  2. Spasmolytics. Improve the circulation of blood throughout the body.
  3. Medications to normalize the rheological properties of blood. First prescribed drip introduction of the drug, then it is replaced with a tablet form.
  4. Anticoagulants.

All medications are selected for each patient individually. The doctor must take into account the stage of the disease and its form.

Operative intervention

Atherosclerosis stenosing in the advanced stage requires an operation. Surgical intervention allows to restore normal patency of blood vessels, remove cholesterol plaques. For this purpose, shunting, stenting, or angioplasty is performed. The above manipulations are performed by both endoscopic and open methods using general anesthesia.

Consequences of the disease

The consequences of this disease can be very serious and life threatening. For example, stenosing arteriosclerosis of the brain arteries often provokes the development of a stroke. Of course, this complication does not appear in everyone. Everything depends on the characteristics of the body, predisposition to the onset of the disease. Studies show that approximately 70% of the population over the age of 60 complains of various manifestations of atherosclerosis. This pathology is the main cause of the syndrome of brain failure.

Stenosing atherosclerosis of the vessels of the lower extremities also does not always have a favorable prognosis. If the artery is completely clogged, the likelihood of developing ischemic gangrene increases. Especially often, pathology occurs in people with diabetes, because this disease speeds up the process of stenosis.

Preventive measures

Begin to engage in the prevention of stenosing atherosclerosis is necessary from early childhood. All people who adhere to an unhealthy lifestyle are at risk of developing the disease.

Prevention includes:

  • Hygienic regime;
  • Moderate sports;
  • Observance of the regime of work and rest.

Do not forget about proper nutrition. The diet should consist mainly of lean meat and seafood, as well as plant foods.

A healthy lifestyle implies a rejection of addictions. However, it is better not to start smoking and drinking.

The listed recommendations should be observed both during therapy and before it. Such advice can avoid complications of the disease. When the first symptoms appear that indicate stenosing atherosclerosis, you should consult a doctor and check the blood vessels. If necessary, the doctor will prescribe the appropriate treatment.

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