News and SocietyPhilosophy

Apologetics is ... Apologetics and patristics

The period of medieval philosophy in Europe spans ten centuries (from V to XV). The middle ages in philosophy are divided into three consecutive stages: apologetics, patristicism, scholasticism.

The main feature of medieval philosophy was theocentrism, and it itself was based on biblical dogma. According to many people, the era of the Middle Ages is associated with "dark time", when European science has practically stopped in its development. But was it really so? The article tells about such periods of the Middle Ages as patristic and apologetics, as well as about their most famous representatives.

Apologetics and Patristics

The philosophy of the Middle Ages is sometimes quite successfully called "the philosophy of the text," because the philosophers of that time mainly dealt with the interpretation of religious writings. The period itself begins in the fifth century, and scientists associate its beginning with the collapse of the mighty Roman Empire. Apologetics and patristic are just the first periods in the philosophy of the Middle Ages, following one after another. It is about these periods that will be discussed in this article.

Apologetics is the first flow of medieval philosophy that arose to protect the ideas of Christianity from the then prevailing pagan ideas. Apologists have seen the philosophy of Christianity as the basis of philosophy.

Later, patristicism emerges - the doctrine of the so-called "Fathers of the Church", which set forth the key points of Christian philosophy and theology. At that time complex religious-speculative systems were developed.

What does the word "apologetics" mean

In translation from Greek, "apologia" means "protection." Apologetics is the defense of early Christianity from paganism. The most famous apologist was Justinian Martyr.

The word "apologetics" in philosophy appeared not at all by chance. The fact is that the writings of the defenders of Christianity were called apologies. Later this name was also used to refer to the entire historical period.

The main tasks of early apologists

Protecting Christian communities and upholding the right to practice a new religion are the primary goals that apologetics set for themselves. This was expressed in the writing of works, which were addressed primarily to representatives of power - the emperors and governors. In their writings, the apologists tried to convince the rulers of the loyalty of the fans of their new religion. Most of their work, they just sent to imperious men, so that they read them.

In the conditions of persistent oppression, the apologists tried their best to gain recognition of their religion. They also addressed their admirers, the early Christians. At the same time, they strongly inspired them with the idea of exclusivity and selectivity and encouraged martyrdom.

The first apologists and their attitude to philosophy

How did the Christian apologetics and its representatives treat philosophy as such? This is also a very important issue, which is worth considering. In general, it is worth noting, the apologists relate to philosophy rather with fear and some enmity. The prevailing pagan philosophy they counterposed to God's wisdom. At the same time, the apologists did not exclude the possibility that some pagans were "enlightened" precisely because of philosophy and converted to Christianity.

Many researchers believe that the apologists in essence and were not philosophers as such. They are rather rhetoricians. Debating with educated and savvy pagans, they raised the question of Christ in order to prove that all good and reasonable in paganism was nothing more than the manifestation of Christ Logos.

The works of early apologists began to appear from the second century. Among the most famous apologists are Justin Martyr, Aristide, Tatian of Assyria, Athenagoras, Quintus Tertullian and other theologians-philosophers.

Martian Aristide from Athens

The first apology, which has reached our days, is dated by scientists in 125 AD. This is the work of Marcian Aristide from Athens, which was addressed to the Roman emperor Adrian (or Antoninus Pius).

In the text of the apology, Aristide says that the world sets in motion some kind of extraneous force, which is God. God himself is perfect, inaccessible and immovable. At the same time Aristeid considers it wrong to read, as a real God, different deities of Hellenes, because they have human flaws, and therefore are imperfect. It is because of the misconceptions about God, in the opinion of the philosopher, that internecine wars and wars between people take place. Aristide assures us that only Christians have the right idea about God and calls on all nations to honor him.

Justin Martyr of Samaria

Without the teachings of Justin Martyr, it is very difficult to imagine such a period of philosophy as apologetics. This traveling philosopher-theologian, who lived in 110-167 years. He died a martyr's death in Rome.

Three works remained of him: "The First Apology," "The Second Apology," and "Dialogue with Trifon the Jew." Philosophy, according to Justin, is precisely the path that leads us to God. According to Justin himself, fateful for him was a meeting with an old man with whom he started a conversation about God and the soul. The old man told Justin that all the truths can be read in the old and new Testament. It was after this conversation, according to Justin, he became a philosopher.

Tatian Assyrian and his work

Medieval apologetics presented another outstanding sage to the world: Tatian Assyrian, who lived approximately 120-175 AD. He traveled a lot, and when he arrived in Rome, he became a disciple of Justin Martyr (shortly before his death).

The main work of Tatian - "Speech against the Hellenes", written in 166-171. In his work, the philosopher contrasts Christian philosophy with ancient philosophy , calling it "our philosophy." To his opponents Tatian is extremely contemptuous, believing that they "weave everything they want." It is for this reason, according to the sage, ancient philosophers argue very much with each other. Tatian denies that the Greeks invented philosophy, calling "our philosophy" one that is older than the letter itself. Many philosophers, according to Tatian, simply altered the writings and teachings of Moses and other similar sages.

Quintus Septimius Florence Tertullian of Carthage

Christian apologetics is impossible without this name. The phrase "I believe because it is absurd" ("credo quia absurdum") is a retelling of a fragment of his work. Tertullian introduced many Romanized concepts into the Catholic Church.

Tertullian severely criticizes pagan philosophy, contrasting it with the concept of pure faith, without claims for intellectualism. He is known as the author of paradoxes in which faith is placed higher than the mind, and the illogicality of any fact should only strengthen the person's faith. "I believe, for it is absurd ...".

Augustine the Blessed and his teaching

The brightest representative of patristy is Augustine the Blessed, who exerted a considerable influence on the entire medieval philosophy. In his teaching he succeeded in successfully connecting Neoplatonism and the postulates of Christianity. On this basis, he treats evil as a lack of good.

"I believe, in order to understand," is the main motto of Augustine's theory of knowledge. Without renouncing rational knowledge, he affirms the unconditional domination of faith. The only salvation of man, according to St. Augustine's conviction, is in belonging to the Christian church. A more perfect theologian considers the human soul, and therefore insists on paying more attention to it, while suppressing sensual pleasures and impulses.

Similar articles





Trending Now






Copyright © 2018 Theme powered by WordPress.