The Roman praetor is ... What is the law right?

The Roman Empire for the centuries of its existence has created not only a great culture and a strong army, but also a clear system of legal relations between the state and citizens. Many of the achievements of the Romans in different areas were borrowed by Europeans, and along with the names. However, some Roman names have not found their place in European culture, remaining in history. For example, today very few people know what a praetor is. And in due time the person occupying this post, played not the last role in the legal Roman state.

The Roman praetor - who is this?

From Latin, the word praetor is translated as "to go ahead". The praetors were called state officials in the Roman Empire, but at different times they were assigned various functions.

If at first in the Roman state there was only one praetor, after a time there were already several dozen.

Who could be the praetor

Since the establishment of this position, any Roman citizen could claim it. However, there were important conditions for each applicant. Since praetor is a solid and responsible position, it could not be occupied by a young man who does not have sufficient life experience. Therefore, the candidate was to be forty or older. In addition, in order to take the post of praetor, it was necessary to move along all the steps of the Roman bureaucratic ladder in order.

The most important thing is that even having achieved the praetor's place, a person took it only for one year. Of course, you could be reelected for a second term, but for this during the first year you had to be very good at recommending yourself.

In the Roman Empire, praetors, like some other officials, did not receive wages for their work, performing it for the benefit of society completely free of charge. Therefore, to afford the luxury of a whole year not getting paid for the work could only wealthy Romans. Although praetors often used this power to defend their interests.

The history of the appearance of praetors and their functions at different times

After the establishment of the republican system in Rome, the word "praetor" acquired a somewhat different meaning. This is the name of the two highest posts in the state: a consul and a dictator.

But over time, the supreme bureaucratic post in Rome began to bear the name of the consul, and the praetor became the next seniority post. During this period, he had quite clear duties as a praetor. This is the control over the judicial system in cases between citizens of the Roman Empire. In addition, when the consul was absent, his praxis for managing the country and the city was performed by the praetor, becoming almost the first person in the state.

Over time, with the improvement of the judicial system, it became necessary to elect two praetors. One of them was in charge of the judicial system in Rome between his citizens, he was called praetor urbanus. And the competence of the second (praetor peregrinus) was the control of legal proceedings between foreigners in the Roman Empire, as well as Romans and strangers.

With the beginning of the active conquests of the new territories by the Romans and the emergence of a mass of provinces, the judicial process in each of them required its own praetor. So at the time of the first Roman emperor Gaius Julius Caesar in Rome there were already as many as 16 praetors, and their number grew.

With the advent of the emperors and the loss of the status of the republic, the scope of the preceptors expanded. Over time, this became known as the highest official posts in every city of the Roman Empire.

The right of praetors

Taking up duties, the praetors issued edicts, the so-called laws for one year. In them they not only composed the program of their work and the principles on the basis of which it will be carried out throughout the year (edictum perpetuum), but also indicated how to resolve litigation in one or another case (edictum repentinum). Over the years, the number of edicts has grown uncontrollably. In addition, each new praetor must necessarily have read the edicts of his predecessors and take them into account, making up his own. It was the edicts of praetors that represented the right of the praetor.

Over time, such laws have accumulated a lot. Some of them contradicted each other. Therefore, over time, they were all collected and reviewed by a Roman lawyer named Savilius Julian.

Praetory today

Today the word "praetor" has lost its meaning. But in some countries it is still relevant. In Romania, the head of the plaza (an administrative unit like the district) is a praetor. This word is also used as the title of the representative of the measure (mayor) in Moldova.

Since the fall of the Roman Empire, several hundred years have passed. Together with her gone to oblivion and the post of praetor. And although today in some countries some positions of officials are also called, they have completely different functions. Despite this, the praetors made a significant contribution to the formation of the legal system known to us today.

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