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Sea transport. Classification of ships

The sea has always been the element that attracted a huge number of tourists. However, this water surface serves a person not only for recreational purposes, but also is a place of extraction of food and minerals, as well as space used for cargo transportation. It is the sea transport that is most in demand for delivering large loads from one country to another. This system includes:

- sea vessels;

- seaports;

- ship repair factories;

- sea routes.

Vessels are classified according to numerous signs. So, differentiation can be based on the area in which the sea transport goes, the class of the installed engine, the carrying capacity, the destination, etc. If we take as a basis the first sign, then the ships are divided into navigation areas from 0 to 4 categories of complexity. In this case, the ships attributed to the latter form are divided into 5 categories. This is the way Russian maritime transport is classified. Ships assigned to the navigation area of the 0th difficulty category have the right to pass everywhere, without any restrictions.

For its intended use, maritime transport can be used for both civil and government purposes. Ships of the last rank and their varieties are part of the country's navy . At the same time, the category of civil vessels includes:

A) industrial;

B) transport;

C) technical fleet.

The second species also collected several subspecies, namely: passenger, cargo and special. The merging of the first and second categories gave rise to yet another, fourth, type - cargo-passenger vessels. Such ships have the right to collect on board both gravity and people at the same time.

Passenger sea transport carries only people, and in the legal sense means under itself ships, ferries and ships, which, in addition to the crew, can take on board more than 12 people.

Cargo ships are divided into bulk and dry cargo vessels. The first category includes tankers and gas carriers. Dry-cargo vehicles are differentiated into general-purpose vessels and specialized ones. The latter include such maritime transport as timber carriers, bulk carriers, refrigerated vessels, container carriers and rouliers. This category is the most widespread in the whole world. Thanks to dry cargo transport, the delivery of various cargoes, for the most part large and large-tonnage, is carried out quickly and efficiently. In addition, transportation in this way is not only cheaper, but sometimes the only possible method. These vessels are equipped with all the necessary attributes for performing both loading and unloading operations. In addition, to transport goods, products and facilities that require special temperature conditions, dry cargo ships are equipped (mostly) with refrigerated holds. The cargo transported on such ships can be packed in a variety of ways: bales, containers, boxes, barrels, etc.

Sea transport of the world is divided into state vessels, commercial, passenger and fishing vessels, coastal and offshore vessels .

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