As an independent branch of science, the history of economics arose in the second half of the XIX century, when it separated from the political economy. This need arose in connection with the need to scientifically comprehend the development of economic processes in society in the historical aspect. The role of the economy in the life of society required independent study, for this we needed a comparative analysis of all socio-economic trends in world development, with the help of this analysis it was possible to identify specific features that differentiate the development of the economy in different regions of the planet and various countries, taking into account the specifics of their development, Geographical conditions, specifics of traditions and mentality.
Separation of the history of the economy into a separate independent science was also connected with the need for one to comprehend the various socio-economic reforms that were carried out in different countries under the influence of global objective trends of development under similar and approximately identical conditions. Already at the end of the XIX century the history of the economy became an independent discipline, which was taught in many higher educational institutions. With the help of this subject, specialists were trained who were able to carry out reform activities using knowledge of the historical experience of reform and drawing on this experience.
For the practical use of the history of the economy, it is also necessary to have unconditional knowledge of economic theory, the ability to determine and use the laws of economic development and to know the specific features of different economic systems. Studies in the historical and economic field have reached important significance in world science. Beginning in 1960, international congresses were regularly held and international centers for the coordination of economic research were established. In 1962 an international association of economic history was founded. Undoubtedly, the history of the Russian economy has also undergone a thorough study and research.
The very subject of the history of the economy is at the intersection of the three directions of studying the history and development of human society. This is history, as well as the theory of economics and the very concrete economy. Such a character of the history of the economy, which is integral, creating its complex structure, inevitably leads to a multiplicity of immediate objects for study. If we take everything in general terms, then the history itself is the study of the origin, formation and development of the economic processes and phenomena themselves.
When studying the economic history of individual regions and states, the peculiarities of their historical development, the influence of these features on such development, economic causes and various consequences of different historical events, as well as the economic policy of the state and the consequences that result from it, are used as an object for study. When studying the history of the national economy, the development of the mechanism for the functioning of the economy is investigated, the evolution of economic systems, the history of development of various branches of the economy, and its individual processes are studied. These include industrialization and urbanization, the development of market relations and cooperation, the degree of centralization and directivity of the economy, the history of development and use of taxation , As well as finances, loans and incomes.
The difficulty in studying the history of the economy creates the need for a combination of different forms and methods of scientific research. The main methods are the historical method, logic, classification method, historical modeling method, comparative-historical, chronological, socio-psychological and others.